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The Proximate Composition And Functional Properties Of Composite Flour From Acha, Fluted Pumpkin Seed And Soybean And Their Reconstituted Bolus Meals




The proximate composition and functional properties of composite flour from Acha, fluted pumpkin seed and soybean and their reconstituted bolus meals were evaluated. Acha, fluted pumpkin seeds and soybeans were processed into flour and blended into ratios of 100% Acha flour, 100% fluted pumpkin seed flour, 100% soybean, 70:10:20% Acha, fluted pumpkin seed and soybean, 60:20:20% Acha, fluted pumpkin seed and soybean, 40:20:20% Acha, fluted pumpkin seed soybean. The flour and flour blended samples were evaluated for their proximate composition and functional properties. Proximate analysis was conducted on the bolus to determine the nutrient composition. The proximate showed an increase in moisture content of the flour blends (5.30% – 7.56%) with no significant different among the samples, and (20.95 – 27.96%) for the bolus meal. The carbohydrate content value was high in sample A (70.92%) – (59.74%) of sample B, and high in sample A (66.77%) – (49.00%) of sample F in the flour and the bolus meal respectively. The protein content value was higher in the flour blends than in the bolus meal, the functional results showed that, the bulk density (0.40 – 0.59g/ml) with sample C (100% Soybean)  having the highest value and sample F (40% Acha, 20% Fluted Pumpkin Seed, 40% Soybean) having the lowest value. The water absorption capacity ranged from (1.04 – 1.19g/ml) with sample E (60% Acha, 20% Fluted Pumpkin Seed, 20% Soybean) having the highest value and sample B (100% Fluted Pumpkin Seed) the lowest. Oil absorption capacity ranged from (0.53 – 1.48g/ml) with sample F having the highest value and sample A the lowest. The swelling index ranged from (53.78 – 83.45g/g) with sample A having the highest value and sample D the lowest. This research indicates that protein and mineral enriched flour and bolus could be produced from composite flour from Acha, soybean and fluted pumpkin.



  • Background of the study

Eating good food can define our life, in the wake of various illness and various health problems such as cancer, diabetes etc. It is important for people to carefully watch what they eat and the rate at which they consume them (Becky, 2017). As certain types of foods, if taken excessively are capable of causing health risks. Consuming to much of carbohydrate dense foods could adversely affect glucose metabolism in the body, increasing the risk of developing diabetes. Diabetic patients are advised to steer off foods with high starch and embrace food with low starch content (Abimola, 2016).

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Bolus meal is popular food in Nigeria known colloquially known as “swallow”, it is so describe because rather than chewing it, it is just swallowed after dipping it soup. It is one of the popular traditional food we have in Nigeria. “Swallow” in Nigeria is usually a starchy food eaten with different kinds of soups (Becky, 2017). This popular traditional food varies from place to place, cassava products (Garri, Fufu), pounded yam are indigenous to the eastern part of Nigeria, Amala to the western part of Nigeria, Tuwo shinkafa is majorly in the northern part of Nigeria (Quora, 2017). Other such foods include wheat (semolina, whole wheat), oat meal swallow, millet swallow and starch.

Many studies have also shown that eating a diet rich in carbohydrate is linked to a higher risk of type two diabetes, heart disease, strokes and weight gain (Ryan, 2017). The glycemic index of the swallow meal are considered because of how it affect the blood glucose levels. Carbohydrate with  low glycemic value are more slowly digested, absorbed and metabolized and cause a lower and slower rise in blood glucose, which is advised for pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals. According to Omoregie and Osagie (2008), the glycemic index of starch (cassava) is 98.60 ±2.68, Eba (cassava) 82.25 ±0.05, Amala (yam) 84.35 ±2.68, Tuwo masara (maize) 86.8 ±0.5, Tuwo gero (millet) 93.60 ±2.25, Tuwo dawa (sorghum) 85.30 ±1.05, Tuwo Shinkafa (rice) 95.30 ±1.25, Semolina (wheat) 95.28 ±0.04 and while acha has a glycemic index of 45 and 35 in type II diabetics patients and health subjects respectively (Janet et al, 2011).

Celiac disease, is an auto immune disorder is which gluten damages small intestine (Oladapo,2018), a gluten free diet is necessary to avoid health risk. Some swallows are gluten packaged such as wheat and oat meal (the contamination of oat occurs during oat processing, most commercial oats are processed in facilities that also process wheat, barley and rye (Faith, 2019)), and can cause adverse health implications for celiac patients when ingested. There is an inflammatory reaction in the intestine which damages the intestinal lining and prevents the absorption of essential nutrient from foods consumed, leading to various deficiencies and reactions that have a negative impact on the normal body physiology. It also leads to medical complication and makes disease management of pre-existing conditions difficult (Oladapo, 2018).

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The concern on diabetes, weight gain/obesity, cancer and other health issues resulting from high carbohydrate diet such as brain fog, unhealthy fats which could potentially give a number of vascular disorders prompted the fortification of the bolus (swallow) meal with high nutrient foods to control and prevent diabetics, cancer, obesity, and also a good alternative for celiac disease (gluten sensitive) patients and non-celiac disease patients as they products are gluten-free.

Acha grain is considered a rich source of minerals, vitamins, fiber, protein, carbohydrate and amino acid. It contains cysteine and methionine, it is good for cardiovascular function, diabetes and an-excellent meal for weight loss compared to most cereals. It is rich in protein but do not contain the gliadin proteins or any gluten (Istifanus and Agbo, 2016). Thus, its gluten free and good option for people suffering celiac disease and non-celaic diseases.

Soybean is a good source of protein for diabetes. It also offer great nutritional value, containing no cholesterol. Low amounts of saturated fats and good levels of fiber, zinc, iron and calcium. It is a good source of essential amino acids, it is also gluten free (Cleveland clinic, 2019).

Fluted pumpkin seeds have the ability to ease some health conditions like protecting the liver and treat arthritis, prevent prostate growth in men, aids hypertension treatment, also protects against osteoporosis (Blessing, 2015).The seeds have nutritive and calorific value, whih makes it a good source of proteins and edible oils and fat (Adenike et al., 2014)

  • Statement of Problem

The bolus (swallow) meal forms most of the daily menu of Nigeria, especially in the South Eastern part. Bolus meal from cassava and wheat based products are low in nutrient, containing mostly carbohydrates. Cassava and cassava products have a glycemic index of 89.25 – 98.06 and semolina (wheat product) has a glycemic index of 95.28 (Omoregie and Osagie, 2008). People are beginning to avoid it for the quest of living healthy as there is an increasing rate of diabetes, obesity and other weight related diseases. Celiac disease and non-celaic disease patients who suffer from gluten reaction are considered in development of gluten free, healthy Bolus meal. There is low utilization and awareness of some locally available nutritious seeds.

  • Significance of Study

There is need for the fortification of the of our traditional bolus meal as most of it are cassava and cassava product or wheat flour and they are less in nutrients and high in carbohydrate. This fortification will prevent development of certain diseases and health disorders resulting from high carbohydrate consumption. The food products are gluten-free do not pose any threat to celiac and non-celaic patients. Utilization and awareness on locally available nutritious seeds thus ensuring food security. These composite flours can also be good alternatives in the production of some foods, like in baking and complementary food supplementation.

  • Objectives of the Study

1.4.1   Main Objective

Production and quality evaluation of the flour and swallow meal made using Acha, fluted pumpkin seed and soybean flour blends.

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1.4.2 Specific Objectives

  • To produce composite flours from acha, fluted pumpkin seed and soya bean.
  • To determine the sensory attributes of the reconstituted products from the flour blends.
  • To determine the proximate composition of the flour blends and the reconstituted products from the flour blends.
  • To determine the functional properties of the flour blends.
  • To subject the data to statistical analysis.

Pages:  62

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF

Chapters: 1-5

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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