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Nutrition & Dietetics

Salt Iodine And Urinary Levels Among Secondary School Students In Owerri




Salt iodine and urinary levels was determined among students of Comprehensive Development Secondary School Owerri. A total of twenty student were  purposively selected: Ten (10) each of Senior (SS3), Junior  (JSS3) students comprising of five (5) each of both genders in each case, Portion size of salt (10-20g) brought by student from their homes was subjected to chemical analysis. Early morning urinary samples of same student were collected and subsequently analyzed using the standard procedure of Associated of Artificial Chemicals (AOAC). Salt level of iodine showed a satisfactory mean level of 121.5mg/kg and 130.8mg/kg for male and female SS3 students and 110.9mg/kg and 109.9mg/kg for JSS3 respectively. Mean urinary iodine levels were similarly 167.6  and 197.6  (ss3) as well as 127.4  and 121.8 (JSS) respectively. Prevalence level of mild iodine deficiency were at 20% and 40% for JSS3 students respectively in male and female. Study suggest an age related prevalence of iodine deficiency  and the need for a larger population based prevalence study



1.1       Background of Study

Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD) constitute the single greatest cause of preventable brain damage in the fetus and infant, and of retarded psychomotor development in young children. Iodine deficiency disorder remains a major threat to the health and development of population worldwide, but particularly among pre-schoolchildren and pregnant women. It results in goiter, stillbirth and miscarriages but the most devastating toll involves mental retardation, deaf-autism and impaired educability. Urinary iodine secretion is a good marker of the very recent dietary intake of iodine and therefore, is the index of choice evaluating the degree of iodine deficiency and of its correction. In this survey, urinary iodine has been adopted as the epidemiological criterion for assessing iodine nutrition of children under 5, mothers and pregnant women (Maziya  et al., 2003).

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Iodine deficiency among mothers was 10% the urban sector, 13.7% in the medium sector and 21% in the rural sector. A more than adequate intake was seen in 16.6% of the mothers in the rural sector, 20.6% in the medium sector and 20.3 in the urban sector. Those with possible excess iodine intake were observed in the rural sector (14.6%) medium sector (25.9%) and urban (24.4%) sector which shows that iodine deficiency is still a problem in Nigeria (Maziya, et al., 2003).

Rosenburg et al., (2010) reported that iodine was discovered in thyroid gland in 1895 by Baumen, it was about 20 years after Baumen’s discovery that serious attention was given to iodine as prophylaxis against goiter in large population group.

Iodine consumption or the physiological effects of iodine are realized by the thyroid hormone in human body (Akunyii, 2010). Thyroid hormone is one of the most important hormone in the human body required for basic life activities. Iodine promotes the production of heat, so as to maintain the normal temperature of human body, (Harris et al., 2012). Iodine regulates the development of bones and muscles of children at the growth and developmental stage. Indeed, iodine deficiency can lead to physical retardation, muscle weakness and other symptoms in terms of cretinism (Shubhanginis, 2015). Iodine also promote active brain, thus, the absence of iodine in adequate quantity exposes to mental retardation, while disorder is essentially irreversible (Joy, 2012).

The latest worldwide recognition of the damage done to public health caused by iodine deficiency, led to the founding of International Councils for Control of Iodine Deficiency Diseases (ICCIDD) (Leon, Rosenburg and Philips (2010) defined goitrogen as compounds which  are capable of inducing enlargement of thyroid gland due to their reaction with iodine in making it unavailable for thyroid activities.

Foods that contain a large amount of iodine are mostly sea foods such as kelp, seaweed, dried seallop, mussel, sea cucumber, jelly fish, later and so on. Sea weeds contains the highest content of iodine (one kilogram of fresh kelp contains more than 2000 microgram of iodine) and followed by marine fish and shellfish. Apart from sea foods, other food such as eggs, milk and meat also contain a large number of iodine. Plant foods contain the lowest amount of iodine in all the foods (Nwagbara et al., 2012).

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In addition, iodized salt contains a really small amount of iodine, especially the purified salt. Every one kilogram of sea salt contains about 20 microgram of iodine. If one person takes in 2 microgram of iodine, this can hardly meet the need for the prevention of disorder caused by iodine deficiency (Akunyii, 2010). In many developing countries however, children hardly grow to their full potential especially Nigeria as a result of many environmental factors such as malnutrition which the consumption of iodine is found to be partly responsible. Children from poor or less privileged families in these counties are mostly affected due to food insecurity, infection and much more (Nwamarah, 2012).

However, Thilly et al., (2012) reported that iodine supplementation can be used in preventing and reducing the occurrence of endemic goiter or iodine deficiency, thus surgery (thyrodectony) is the only complete way of curing Iodine Deficiency Disorder at present.

1.2       Statement of Problem

Goiter, an Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD) is a common name for the disease condition arising from dietary deficiency of iodine which represents a major public health problem in Nigeria. Myxoedema (Hypothyroidism), which is seen more common today, is clinical syndrome in which the body metabolic processes slow down due to deficiency or absence of thyroid hormone (Joshi, 2015). Meanwhile little or no work has been done in relation to salt iodine and urinary levels among secondary school student in Owerri, hence the researcher is particularly interested in finding out the extent of these deficiency of iodine among secondary school student and their salt iodine and urinary level.

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Yet iodine deficiency disease is still here within. Even though Nigeria have been seen to attain universal salt iodization status, the need to examine the levels of iodine in salt cannot be over emphasized.  Clearly, we do not know the level of iodine in salt consumed in households in Owerri. We do not know the urinary level of iodine in secondary school students, neither do we know how much this is affected by gender. These are the few but clinical gap in iodine knowledge and status in Owerri that the present study seeks to fulfill.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

This is to determine salt iodine and urinary levels among secondary school student in Owerri.

1.3.1    Specific Objectives

These shall be to

  • Determine levels of iodine in edible salt of student
  • Evaluate for urinary level of iodine
  • Identify gender difference in urinary levels
  • Assess for relationship between salt levels and urinary levels

 1.4      Significance of the Study

The finding of this study will be very useful to health practitioners like Medical Doctors, Dieticians, Nutritionists, Social health workers among others.  While dealing with the consumption pattern of iodine among school children, there is need for the public to be well informed about the choice of iodized salt to ensure proper functioning of the body system, hence the findings of this research will help in improving the nutritional status of the student. The finding shall also serve as a guide to Federal, State and Local Government Areas, in nutrition and health policy planning and resource distribution. The finding of this research will equally be used by Agriculturists especially soil and crop scientists.

Pages:  51

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF        

Chapters: 1-5                                 

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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