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Nutrition & Dietetics

Proximate Composition And Sensory Evaluation Of Biscuit Made From Wheat Flour, Cassava And Peanut Flour Blends

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ABSTRACT

Biscuit were produced from Wheat-Cassava and Peanut Flour Blends and their proximate composition and sensory properties were determined. Four flour formulations designated as samples A, B, C and D were produced. Sample A consisted of 100% wheat flour and served as the control. Samples B and C comprised of 70% wheat, 15% Cassava, 15% Peanut flours and 60% wheat, 20%  Cassava and 20% Peanut flours. The composition of Sample D was 50% wheat, 25% Cassava, 25% Peanut flours respectively. The result of the proximate composition showed that there was significant increase (P<0.05) in the protein, fat, ash and crude fiber content. The values ranged from 9.06-14.13%, 14.08-15.09%, 1.15-1.66% and 1.27-1.47% respectively. The carbohydrate values ranged from 59.79-66.33% while the values for moisture content vary from 7.85-8.26%. These values decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increase in Cassava and Peanut Flour blends. The sensory scores showed that the biscuit produced from 100% wheat flour compared favourably with the biscuit from the composite flours of wheat, Cassava and Peanut Flour and therefore biscuit could be successfully prepared from the composite flours of wheat, Cassava and Peanut Flour. This would enhance the utilization of these underutilized crops and help in alleviating protein energy malnutrition problems in developing countries. 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of study

Biscuit are smallest treats, commonly forced in to a circular shopped. It is a-ready-to eats, cheap and convenient food product that is consumed among all age groups in many countries (Lorenz, 1993). Research has shown that biscuits and other pastries which as meat-pie, biscuit, cake, etc could be made from flours of locally available crops such as sweet potato, cassava, corn, rice, millet, sorghum, pigeon pea etc.

Biscuits are convenient snacks produced, dried to a very low moisture content taken among young people and adult to provide energy (Ihenkoronye and  Ngoddy, 1985). They have been reported to e rich in fat and carbohydrate; hence they can be referred to as energy giving food as well as good sources of protein and minerals. it is produced from a mixture of flour and water which may contain fat, sugar, and other ingredients mixed together into dough which is rested for a period and passed between rollers to make a sheet. The main ingredient generally used for biscuit production is wheat- flour with other ingredients such as margarine (shortening) sweeteners (sugar) leaving agents, egges  milk, salt and flavor (Enwere, 1998).Baking industry in Nigeria is flourishing day-by-day and wide variety of baked goods is available in the market to fulfils consumers demand for nutritional requirement besides other baked products, biscuit are one of the most popular bakery products widely consumed due to it ready to eat nature, good nutritional quality low cost and longer shelf- life that has also been enriched with dietary fiber (Enwere, 1998).

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Flour is the major ingredient in bakery goods production which constitutes a staple in the diet of many countries including Africa. The flour for the bakery products is usually from wheat but harsh climatic conditions in the tropical region is not conducive for the growth of wheat, thus these countries have to wheat. For these reason, FOA and the above developing countries became interested in research on flour from local crops to replace wheat or use in conjunction with wheat flour to reduce the cost on wheat importation and subsequently cost of production. This has led to the various works on composite flour (Chinma et al, 2007) which has higher nutritional advantages over individual flours and subsequent products.

Composite flour can be defined as a mixture of server flours a obtained from roots, tubers, cereals of legumes with or without the addition of wheat flour. Composite flour have been used extensively and successfully in the production of baked goods. It is produced from roots and tubers, such as yam, cassava, sweet potato, cocoyam among in conjunction with legumes including cowpeas, peas, chickens- peas, lima beans, common beans and soybeans plus lesser known ones such as pigeon peas , groundnut, hamburger bean seed (voandzela sloanel) and pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan) (FAO, 1995).

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Peanuts are one of the leading agricultural crops of the world and belong to the family leguminous. It is a source of edible oil and plant protein. The characteristic feature of legume seed protein is that they are markedly deficient in methionine and tryptophan. Infact, methioine is t he first limiting essential amino acid in almost all the legume grains. Peanuts contain about 26% to 35% protein with the peanut meal containing a large amount of nutritionally essential amino – acid. The seeds are nutritional and contain vitamin E, Niacin, folacin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, riboflavin, thiamine, potassium etc (Ogbo; 2002). Peanut also contain a significant load of  resveratrol, a strong antioxidant which inhibit lipid peroxidation of low – density lipoprotein (LOL), prevents the cytotoxicity of oxidized (LDL) and protects cells  against lipid peroxidation. Hydrophilic aid lipophilic properties, it can as well provide more effective protection than other well known antioxidations such as vitamin C and E (Ogbo; 2002).

Cassava, one of the raw materials is an indigenous and stable food of millions of Nigerian people. The few misconceptions related to cassava especially with regard to its low nutritional value and its toxicity have been effectively challenged by National ad International Research Institutions. National Institutions like University of Agriculture Umedike in Umuahia who have succeeded in producing many Tropical Manioc Selection (TMS) varieties with an added advantage of low cyanide  (IFAD, 1994).

Despite the obvious advantages of cassava like being easily propagated by stem cutting. Relatively high yielder and excellent source of calories, cassava remained for some time a neglected crop in agricultural research and development activities to an extent not commensurate with its importance as food  (IFAD, 1994).

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1.2       Problem Statement

Flour is the major ingredient in bakery products’ in production. The flour for bakery products is usually from wheat, this wheat flour contains high amount of gluten (Gluten is a strong, sticky, stared protein that forms when wheat flour and water mix.). The presence of gluten is not encouraged in chemically leavened baked goods such as cake, biscuits etc.

Excess gluten makes biscuits leaden, pancake, rubbery and piecrusts’ tough.

Thus, these flour used in this research work contains less protein and form weaker gluten; these “soft flours” produce a more tender product which is usually preferable for biscuits.

1.3       Aim and Objectives

1.3.1    Aim

The aim of this project is to produce biscuit using wheat flour, cassava  and peanut flour blends at the proportion of 100:0:0, 50:25:25, 70:15:15 and 60:20:20,

1.2.2    Objectives

The objectives of this project are to determine the following:

  1. The Proximate properties of the biscuit produced

iii.   The sensory evaluation i.e. to check the acceptability of the biscuits.

1.4       Scope of Study

This research is focused on the procurement of the biscuits with composite flour sample, making the flour samples to determine and compare the nutrient compositions of deferent samples that will be produced from the composite flour (wheat, cassava and peanut flour) and to evaluate the proximate, mineral compositions and sensory properties in order to ascertain consumer acceptability. 

1.5       Justification

The significance of this study is to produce biscuits that are different from the already existing once different flours and ascertaining the nutritional and sensory value.


Pages:  69

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF

Chapters: 1-5

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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