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Nutrition & Dietetics

Blood Glucose Response On Consumption Of Fermented Cassava Based Foods On Healthy Subjects




This study aimed at assessing the blood glucose response of fermented cassava (fufu and garri) on healthy subjects. A cross sectional study design was adopted where twenty-four (24) non-diabetic students were selected on volunteer basis, aged 20-25years. The study was carried out in the Food laboratory, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Imo State University, Owerri for a period of 3days. The students were randomly grouped into 2 groups consisting of 12 in each group. The students were blinded on the food they consumed. Anthropometric measurements were carried out on the first day in order to exclude overweight and underweight students. On the second day, reference food (glucose) was fed to the students after overnight fast. Fasting blood glucose was carried out at 0minutes, that at 30, 60, 90, 120minutes respectively. The same was done on the third day for the determination of blood glucose response of the test blood. Blood glucose was determined using Accu check glucometer, 50g digestible carbohydrate portion of the reference and test foods were given respectively. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Results obtained from the anthropometric indices showed that the mean age of the students was 22.00±2.054years. The mean height and weight of the students were 1.65±10.72 and 63.35±11.38kg while BMI of the subjects was 22.98±2.62kg/m2. Proximate composition showed that garri was higher in crude protein (1.49%), crude fibre (1.10%), carbohydrate (37.00%), dietary fibre (3.50%), while fufu was higher in moisture (60.12%) and fat content (0.33%). The glycemic index of fufu was 16.82, while that of garri was 7.80. Fufu had high glycemic load (5.66) while garri had (2.26). Fufu recorded a high glycemic load and indices while garri had low glycemic indices. The study therefore recommends amongst others that consumption of foods high in fiber, protein and moderate fat could help reduce high blood glucose levels.



1.1 Background to the study

The glycemic index (GI) is an important parameter of food quality which compares the hyperglycemic effect of a tested meal with pure glucose (or of another defined standard food). The GI is a measure of the food power to raise Blood glucose concentration after a meal. The Glycemic index is defined as relation of the incremental area under the Blood glucose response curve (IAUC) of a tested meal containing 50 g of digestible carbohydrates and the incremental area under the B-glucose response curve of the standard food, i.e. 50 g pure glucose (IAUCS). Carbohydrates that breakdown quickly during digestion have a high Glycemic index because their Blood glucose response is fast and high. Carbohydrates that breakdown slowly have a low GI (Jenkins et al., 2002).For healthy eating, particularly in persons with diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance, foods with low GI are recommended as they may help keep the euglycaemia and the normal spectrum of lipoproteins (Heilbrannet al., 2002; Foster-Powell et al., 2002). These effects result in decreased cardiovascular danger and probably also in reduced risk for colon and breast cancer (Kabiret al., 2002). On the other hand, the GI values have a large inter and intra individual variability (Klein et al., 2003). For many foods in the European Union the glycemic index has not been defined yet. Even the methods for defining the GI are not standardized (Foster-Powell et al., 2002). Therefore, any effort to enable the determination and practical use of Glycemic index may support establishing optimum dietary recommendations and good eating habits.

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The principal purpose of the glycemic index is a tool for food choice. The Glycemic Index Foundation of Australia launched a labeling system in 2002 known as the Glycemic Index Symbol Program. A food with the trademarked ‘Low Glycemic index Symbol’ on the package must be a carbohydrate based food, low in total fat, saturated fat, sodium, calories and be a good source of fiber. The symbol ensures an overall healthy food choice (Foster-Powell et al., 2002). The University of Sydney claims the Glycemic index is a tool for healthy eating for all people (Foster-Powell et al., 2002).

The Glycemic index and Glycemic load of meals and daily consumption can be calculated based on the Glycemic index and Glycemic load values of foods using tables and standardized calculation procedures available (Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization, 2008; Woleveret al., 2003). These tables are updated whenever new Glycemic index and Glycemic load values are established for different foods, such as those proposed by Brand-Miller et al. (2014) and Sydney University Glycemic Index Research Service (Brand-Miller et al., 2014). Among the foods listed in these tables are staples from different places of origin. There are several studies that address native or cultivated staples grown in Europe, North America, Oceania, Africa, and Asia.

Cassava processing improves palatability, increase shelf life, facilitates transportation and most importantly, detoxifies cassava roots by removal of cyanogen’s (Nweke, 2014). The processing of the cassava varieties into fufu by fermentation enhances micronutrient availability, improves nutritional value and aids in degrading anti-nutritional factors. The higher nutritional and lower anti-nutritional quality of sweet cassava variety than the bitter cassava variety makes sweet cassava a better variety for Garri production (Mbanasoet al., 2011).

Cassava processing by traditional methods is labour intensive under this system; the relatively low field labor requirement contrast with the high processing labour demand (Mitchell, 2008). Cassava roots are used for human food and animal feed in a large number of different products.  The major processed forms of cassava roots fall into four general categories÷ meal, flour, chips starch, and meal forms include Garri, fufu, lafun, tapioca, abacha etc. Processing is therefore necessary to reduce the moisture content, to improve storage characteristics and reduce the weight, as well as to detoxify cassava by eliminating the HCN (Mbanasoet al., 2011).  It is also essential to impact the characteristics flavor as in Garri or fufu as desired by consumers.

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Garri is a popular food that is mostly consumed by people in West African countries like Nigeria, Togo, and Ghana etc. It is a common food in Nigeria, and it is greatly love by many because of the Nutritional benefits it gives and also it makes one feel full after it is consumed.  Garri is consumed greatly because of its great starch content, which makes it possible for it to release a large amount of energy after it has been broken down through the process of glycolysis.  It is consumed either by drinking with groundnut, coconut, sugar, milk, etc.  or consumed by swallowing  (product known as eba)  this method involves the use of preparing Garri with hot water to form a dough structure,  it can be used in various kinds of soups/stews  (Montagnacet al., 2009).


Fufu can be consumed with a variety of soups eg okra, egusi, oha and bitter leaf soups. The consumers consider the product best when boiled. Boiled and stirred processed fufu takes many hours of strenuous work to prepare and also requires quite an amount of energy to consume. Traditionally, fufu is sold as a wet paste and this renders it highly perishable with a short shelf life (Tomlins et al., 2007). This problem has been addressed with the production of fufu flour that can be easily reconstituted into a paste with hot water and this product has become increasingly useful in and outside of Nigeria (Tomlinset al., 2007).

Furthermore, fufu has enormous health benefit, it is rich in carbohydrates and supplies lots of energy to the body (Biola, 2006). In contrast, fufu is high in calories, consuming just two wraps of fufu provides more than 600 calories that can make one very fat and, it takes longer time to digest than garri leading to indigestion which is known to cause belly fat (Biola, 2006).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The contribution of glycemic index to nutrition therapy and medical dietetics cannot be over emphasized and yet very little is known about the glycemic index value of most foods we consume. Less effort has been concentrated on the glycemic index value of most commonly consumed Nigerian foods. The knowledge of the glycemic index value of food is not only limited to diabetics alone, as it can be used to treat overweight which is also very prevalent in our society and can lead to obesity and insulin insensitivity.

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In 2013, 35million adults in developing countries were estimated to be overweight and obese, with 92million at risk of overweight (DE Oniset al., 2010).A study carried out in Gombe State, Nigeria among adults on socio-economic status, lifestyle and obesity showed that the prevalence ofoverweight and obesity were 3.7% and 2.8% respectively (Alkali et al., 2015).

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide, and it is projected that by the year 2030 over 500 million adults will be affected by diabetes mellitus. Previous studies by Bakariet al. (2016) found the prevalence of 1.6% in a Sub-urban Northern Nigeria city and et al. (2017)found a prevalence of 1.45% ina rural population of North Central Nigeria.

The above background motivated the research towards determining the blood glucose response of fermented cassava based foo foo (akpu and garri) on healthy subjects. Ogbujiet al. (2016) who worked on glycemic indices of different cassava food products reported a glycemic index of 92.36 for garri and 84.06 for fufu. They further indicated in their study that garri and fufu are both high glycemic foods.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.3.1 General Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is to determine the blood glucose response of fermented cassava fufu on healthy subjects.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives of the Study

1). To evaluate the proximate and dietary fiber composition of fermented cassava fufu.

2). To determine the anthropometric indices of the volunteers.

3). To determine the blood glucose response of fermented cassava fufu on healthy subjects.

4). To calculate the glycemic index of fermented cassava fufu.

1.4 Significance of the Study

  1. The result of this study will be of immense significance to dietitians and nutritionists, doctors and nurses, caregivers, policy makers, researchers, consumers and among others.
  2. To the dietitians and nutritionists, the result will encourage them to use the glycemic index as a tool in the diet therapy.
  3. Caregivers will benefit from this research as it will give them an idea of how certain foods affect blood glucose levels of their patients. These results will enable policy makers in Government establishments to establish an act for information on the glycemic index value of processed foods to help consumers make better food choices.

Pages:  60

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF        

Chapters: 1-5                                 

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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