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Role of the private sector participation in tourism development in Nigeria




The study is on “Role of the private sector participation in tourism development in Nigeria”. The study has four objectives and four research questions. Diagnostic survey design was used as a process of data collection in order to achieve the research objectives and to test the hypotheses. The study area was Ogwashi-Uku Town.  The rural dwellers were summed up to only fifty since they could be reached easily and two other stakeholders namely, the public and private sectors were used for the study while one each of the two categories was randomly selected to pre-test the research instrument for a more accurate data Three semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data from all the respondents of the three population groups. The findings show that the private sector is a major contributor to the development and sustainability of tourism project. That there are various factors affecting tourism development among which are: poverty, lack of awareness, crime, insecurity, congestion etc. That tourist is conscious of the security of the lives and properties and the mode of transport as well as attraction found in the tourist destinations. The study therefore recommended among others that the private sector should collaborate with the public sector and other stakeholders to provide an enabling environment for tourism to thrive and as a result basic infrastructural facilities such as good and motorable roads, portable water supply, constant electricity and security of lives and properties. The government should provide soft loans to private investors who wish to invest massively in the tourism industry and give them the necessary support to ensure that they strive and succeed.




There is a growing recognition that innovation approaches must be adopted in order to maintain the economic health of a number of countries, communities and regions. While conditions vary from region to tourism, tourism has been seen as an important from of economic development. It has also been promoted as a somewhat benign agent of economic and social change, a promulgator of peace through interaction and dialogue, and a service based industry capable of creating employment and income. However, in countries and states with tourism traffic, there is also an awareness and knowledge of the more intangible and indirect economic cost of tourism. Experiences has show that destinations can rise and fall in popularity, driven by various factors in the destination’s internal and external catastrophe, demanding and supply-side problems. Tourism incorporate the conservation of the environment and the preservation of the historical and cultural heritage of a people that makes leisure a meaningful event (ukene, 2003)

Tourism is all embracing; it involved the interaction of other components such as transportation, communication, accommodation and destination among others. These sectors can be singularly handled by the government alone as they constitute pillars of tourism development. (  Akpet 2005). Therefore, the private sector must, of necessity, be involved in the development and promotion of tourism in any country that intends to make tourism the mainstream of her economy.

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Nigeria is a nation that is blessed with both human and material resources that have expanded to huge tourism opportunities for the nation that cut across cultural-tourism, religion tourism, e tal, all these have created wealth of opportunities for the nation and investors to make further their wealth creation plan and create employment opportunities for Nigeria.

According to Zurbito (2013), Tourism is T-totality of duly organized service systems required by tourists, with O-objective to experience and enjoy the U-uniqueness of an undisturbed environment in a R-resting place complimented with activities, where I-income is generated from infrastructures and S-sustained services rendered by persons, M- motivated to nurture and preserve the natural resources, in order to pamper people of today and future. The above definition is to give justice to “TOURISM” and intended enrich the study of tourism since tourism is currently practiced as the world’s leading economic activity employing, and being enjoyed by the largest number of the world’s population.

The level of private sector participation in tourism development ranged from promotion and marketing of tourism products and venues, infrastructural development and supporting services, consultancy, workshop, travel and tour packaging among other services. The private sector is the part of the economic that is been run by individuals and companies, rather than the government. Most private sector organization is run with the intention of making profit. The business dictionary (online 2013), defines private sector as a part of national economy that consists of private enterprises including personal sector (households) and corporate sector (companies). Similarly, the private sector provides manpower planning for the tourism sector, quality standards in tourism services, product development and diversification, marketing and promotion plans, capacity building programs in hospitality skill and tourism business development, tourism physical planning and resort development.

This study is carried out to critically assess the role of the private sector participation in tourism development in Nigeria with Ogwashi-Uku cultural festival as a study.


Although tourism today is generally a government driven industry, a reasonable level of private sector involvement in terms of infrastructural development, investment, regulation and marketing is necessary. In some countries, cultural tourism in the hinterland is accorded priority attention by policy makers as an important rural development strategy. In some others, particularly in the developing countries and Africa, support for rural tourism development may be limited by inconsistencies in policies, political and institutional obstacles, and administrative complexities (Holland et al, 2013). It has been observed that infrastructural development in rural areas in developing countries is still a significant barrier to tourism development (Peterson, 2010).

In the tourism industry in Nigeria, there has been little or no support by private and cooperate bodies to boost the development of an industry which is capable of providing a permanent solution to the over-dependence on the black gold called crude oil. Success in rural tourism development without considerable involvement of the private sector and community members is unlikely. Tourism planning and sustainability requires strong government support. Community people will be willing to cater for tourists and provide setting and experience that are attractive to the visitors (Stevenson, 2002). Besides, community people claim ownership of the resources and the land on which the resources are situated. Therefore, any plan without the involvement of the community members is likely to fail.

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In Ogwashi-Uku in particular and Delta State in general, infrastructural development and rural tourism are still at low level despite the fact that tourism resources are in abundance. Involvement of all the stakeholders in tourism planning is yet to be witnessed. Appropriate environment has not been created to stimulate tourism growth in the rural areas. The researcher, therefore strongly assume that government is lagging behind in carrying out their expected roles. It is against this backdrop that the researcher embarked on this study.


The general objectives of the study were to determine the extent and type of private sector involvement in tourism development, and the extent of their compliance with the trade and tourism policy and Decree 81 of 1992. Specific objectives of this study include the following:

  1. To examine the various aspects of tourism development, open for private sector investment.
  2. To determine touristic activities that requires active participation and collaboration of the government and the sector.
  • To determine to what extent the private sector has been involved in tourism development in the study area.
  1. To determine the strategies that could be used to attract private sector participation in tourism development.


  1. To what extent has the private sector been involved in the tourism development in the study  area?.
  2. What are the various aspects of tourism development that are open to private sector investment in the study area?

iii.      What are the touristic activities and roles that require active participation and collaboration of the private sector in the study area?

  1. What are the strategies that could be used to attract private sectors participation in tourism development in the study area?


Ho1—The involvement of the private sector in tourism development in the study       area is not significant.

Ho2—Provision of enabling environment and other facilities to the private sector in the study area will have no significant effect on their participation.


Tourism is now thought to be one of the most effective strategies to stimulate rural economic development. Tourism creates employment and generates income. (Egbali, 2010). Community based-tourism development benefits the local community members. A clear understanding of current situation in Ogwashi-Uku community in Aniocha south Local Government will help policy makers and tourism planners to initiate appropriate development strategies that will maximize the intended benefits of tourism projects.


The study is streamlined and focused on the role of the private sector in tourism development in Nigeria with reference to Ogwashi-Uku carnival in Delta State of Nigeria.


Phenomena: something (such as an interesting fact or event) that can be observed and studied and that typically is unusual or difficult to understand or explain fully

Promulgator:  to make known by open declaration; publish; proclaim formally or put into operation (a law, decree of a court, etc.).

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 Mainstream: Representing the prevalent attitudes, values, and practices of a society or group.

Black gold: A thick, flammable, yellow-to-black mixture of gaseous, liquid, and solid hydrocarbons that occurs naturally beneath the earth’s surface, can be separated into fractions including natural gas, gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, fuel and lubricating oils, paraffin wax, and asphalt and is used as raw material for a wide variety of derivative products.

 Socio-economic:  are the social and economic experiences and realities that help mold one’s personality, attitudes, and lifestyle.

 Diversification: the process of allocating capital in a way that reduces the exposure to any one particular asset or risk.

Nomadic manner: a group of people who have no fixed home and move according to the seasons from place to place in search of food, water, and grazing land.

 Price- quality ratio: refers to a product’s ability to deliver performance, of any sort, for its price. Generally speaking, products with a lower price/performance ratio are more desirable, excluding other factors.

 Cyclizations: The formation of one or more rings in a chemical compound, especially a hydrocarbon.

 Human typology: To create significant advances in customer value in today’s increasingly turbulent world and it requires constant focus on innovation.

 Kumbha mela: A Hindu festival and assembly, held once every twelve years at four locations in India, at which pilgrims bathe in the waters of the Ganges and Jumna Rivers.

Multi-functional: having or serving a utilitarian purpose; capable of serving the purpose for which it was designed

 Slumdog Millionaire: refers to a slum dweller, a person, especially a young person or child, who lives in an area of a town or city where there is extreme poverty and living conditions are particularly bad, with poor sanitation and makeshift housing.

 Telerobotic:  is the area of robotics concerned with the control of semi-autonomous robots from a distance, chiefly using Wireless network (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Deep Space Network, and similar) or tethered connections. It is a combination of two major subfields, teleoperation and telepresence.

 Inselbergs: An isolated rock hill, knob, ridge, or small mountain that rises abruptly from a gently sloping or virtually level surrounding plain.

Epileptic implementation: is a chronic health problem which Patients with need to understand their disease, and they need to develop and maintain the skills to manage it

 Lychee: A small rounded fruit with sweet white scented flesh, a large central stone, and a thin rough skin.

 OAS: Organization of American States (OAS) An international organization that includes the United States and over thirty nations in Latin America. It was founded in the 1940s to promote the peaceful settlement of disputes and economic cooperation among members

Shebeens: (especially in Ireland, Scotland, and South Africa) an unlicensed establishment or private house selling alcohol and typically regarded as slightly disreputable.

 Debureaucratization: the process of removing the monopoly of a few bureaucrat-politicians in the government. This is done by making room for the participation of citizen organizations in the country governance

Pages:  86

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF         

Chapters: 1-5                                 

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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