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Environmental Degradation And Its Effect On Ecotourism




This study is conducted to examine the environmental degradation impacts of ecotourism in Nigeria with reference to Local Governments in Plateau state, Jos district. The study involved the participations of the experts who have visited and settled in the district. By using the questionnaire method as data collection, the study analyzed both quantitative and qualitative data. The canvassed questionnaire method is employed to obtain empirical data from the expert’s interview like local community leaders, chief of Non Government Organizations (NGO), owners of travel agenesis and chief or employer of local authorities. Furthermore, the document analysis method is used to acquire the primary data from prior literature and public materials. The study focuses on analyzing collected data in order to generalize the environmental impacts of ecotourism in Jos (North, East and Central) district. The result of study provides a summary of key findings and improving recommendations relating to ecotourism and environmental impacts management in the district.



1.1       Background of the Study


According to Buckley (2008), Ecotourism is widely recognized for its positive impacts to environment, ecotourism operators and tourism lobbyists argue that the ecotourism has contributed to the economic, social and cultural development of the local communities by conserving and supporting the protected areas. Eco-tourists are fond of enjoying nature, culture and its development supporting local communities during their visit to the destination. Ecotourism operator and other tourism lobbyists have argued that ecotourism always generates benefits and supports the conservation of the destination. The protected areas are significant for the development of tourism in a place.

This study is made to analyze the environmental impact of ecotourism in the destination. Ecotourism can have different impacts and that can be divided into two major categories; negative and positive. Negative impacts are always connected to the natural resources, local culture and disturbance arose by ecotourism in their development whereas positive impacts have always been analyzed from the eyes of benefits provided to the destination in different form such as conservation of the destination, economical, social and cultural development of the local communities related to the destination etc.

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In this section of the study, the light is given to the vital and most possible impact of ecotourism on the environment of the destination. A major part of the natural resources is consumed by human every year for the sake of human’s socio-economical development. “The planet’s natural resources are consumed or contaminated by its human population. Human survival needs drinkable water, breathable air and usable biological diversity. Natural ecosystems are the world’s primary reservoirs for each of these” (Buckley, 2008, p.5). The basic needs of human are satisfied and fulfilled after consumption of a vital proton of natural resources. Apart from this modernization, industrialization and urbanization are other processes under-taken by humans to fulfill their socio-economic demands and ambitions, which lead towards heavy consumption of natural resources. These activities are leading to the reduction of natural wilderness.

The concept of eco-tourism has evolved over time and is presently used with different meanings. The original one, spread during the 1980s, stands for small-scale tourism which involves visiting natural areas while minimizing environmental impacts. In this line, green tourism has been used interchangeably with such concepts as  ecotourism,  nature tourism, and  rural tourism (Sung-kwon et al. 2003). Businesses have generally adopted a broader meaning for green tourism: any tourism  activity operating in an environmentally friendly manner.

Green tourism, or ecotourism, is a combination of four factors: conservation, community, culture and commerce.

It was only in 1983 that Mexican landscape architect and environmentalist Héctor Cebellos-Lascurain coined the term “ecotourism” and gave this definition: “Environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features – both past and present) that promotes conservation, has low visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socioeconomic involvement of local populations. The ecotourism label supports appropriate tourism, nature tourism, sustainable tourism, responsible travel and adventure tourism.

Tourism is a rapidly growing phenomenon and has become one of the largest industries in the world. The impact of tourism is extremely varied. On one hand, it plays an important and certainly positive role in the socio-economic and political development in destination countries by, for instance, offering new employment opportunities. Also, in certain instances, it may contribute to a broader cultural understanding by creating awareness, respecting the diversity of cultures and ways of life. On the other hand, as a tool to create jobs, it has not fulfilled its expectations. At the same time, complaints from tourist destinations concerning massive negative impacts upon environment, culture and residents’ ways of life have given rise to a demand for a more sustainable development in tourism. Different parties will have to be involved in the process of developing sustainable tourism. This section focuses on what the tourism industry itself can do in order to increase its sustainability, defines three major problems, and suggests possible tourism initiatives to help solve these problems. Other problems should also be included in the discussion for it to become exhaustive.

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1.2     Statement of Problem

Hence, protection of natural resources for environmental development for sustainable earth is important. Many theories have been written explaining the importance of ecotourism for conservation of nature and its resources. The literature has described the impact of ecotourism briefly (Buckley, 2008). Out of a great number of environmental impacts, some of the major impacts are discussed in this section.

Statement of the Problem

Kodagu district of Karnataka state has emerged as a new ecotourism destination with the unique natural landscape, multiform fauna and flora species along with diversified culture. Since ecotourism was not quickly developed in Kodagu district. Environmental impact has one of the consequences of ecotourism. The two types of impacts have predicted in this issue these are; positive and negative impacts of ecotourism. Positive environmental impacts of ecotourism are such as increase in conservation awareness among stakeholders of ecotourism, improved landscape characteristics and quality, well-preserved water resources, water bodies, and natural habitats, increase in water, air and other environmental qualities. From negative impacts of ecotourism like decrease in abundance and diversity of flora and fauna, decrease in water, air and natural habitats quality, decrease in sensitivity of ecosystems, noise pollution, soil erosion and landslide, change of hydrological system of the river and its creek system, deterioration of archaeological sites, cultural monuments and heritages due to low carrying capacity of the sites and traffic jam in the densely populated tourist place.

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Objective of the study

The study has been carried out with the following objective

  1. To examine the environmental degradation features and its impact on ecotourism in Nigeria
  2. To examine the relationship between these environmental hazards and ecotourism in the long term.
  3. To highlight, tourism and give recognition to it as a positive activity with a potential benefit to the local community.

1.4     Research Question

The research work is guided with same research question, which will be administered and distributed among the researchers area of study. The questions were carefully structured to gather information for better understanding of the research work.

  1. What is the effect of environmental degradation features and its impact on ecotourism in Nigeria
  2. What is the relationship between these environmental hazards and ecotorusm ecotourism in the long term?
  3. To what extent has ecotourism been given recognition as a positive activity with a potential benefit to the local community?


1.6     Significance of the Study

This research work highlights on the importance of ecotourism and management as a means of sustainable tourism development. It is believed that the findings of this research work should provide detailed information on the how to manage tourist centers for a sustainable development and long term survival. It is also expected that the study will benefit the hospitality industries and management.

The research will also have a significance difference to the researcher. This is because the study will expose the researcher to so many related areas in the course of carrying out his research. This will enhance the researcher’s experience, knowledge and understanding on tourism and management for a sustainable development.

Scope/Delimitations of the Study

Due to time constrain, this research work should have covered a whole festive period of the celebration, but was shorten, also this research work is limited to the study of tourist sites and its surrounding in south eastern parts of Nigeria. Also,

  • Little materials are also available because the work is relatively new.
  • Financial constrain poses another challenges.

Pages:  30

Category: Seminar

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo                           

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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