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Hospitality & Tourism Management

The Effect Of Tourism Impact Upon The Quality Life Of Residents In Communities

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ABSTRACT

This work evaluated the effect of impact of tourism on quality of lives of residents in communities in Nigeria. Social impacts of tourism are basically the consequences of either the development of the tourism industry or the presence of tourists in the destination. These impacts occur as a result of interaction between the host and the tourists. The objectives of the research were to identify the various attractions in the destination, evaluate the ways the destination has affected the social lives of the host communities and to determine how the impacts have affected the sustainability of local social lives of the host communities. Data for this research was generated using qualitative and quantitative techniques. Simple frequency percentages, mean and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) derived from regression analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had significant effect on the social lives of the residents of host communities and tourism development had significant effect on the sustainability of the socio-cultural lives of the host communities. This implies that tourism has a significant effect on the social live and the sustainability of the social lives of the residents of host communities. Public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. In conclusion, it is important that standard social frameworks must be established at the development stages to preserve and protect social and cultural values of Nigerian people most especially of the residents in host communities.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of Study

Tourism comprises of the activities of people travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment, for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes (Holden, 2008). Wall and Mathieson (2006) defined tourism as “the study of people away from their usual habitat, of the establishment which responds to the requirement of travellers and of the impacts that they have on the economic, physical and social well being of their host”. This definition recognises the key players in the industry as tourists (people who travel out of their usual place of residence), tourism industry (establishments that responds to the needs of travellers), impacts (economic, environmental, social and cultural) and the host community whose tourism resource the tourist have come to enjoy.

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Tourism is based upon the economic and social processes and changes that are occurring in the environment of the societies where tourist come from, its development in destinations focuses on the use of natural and cultural resources which generates impacts. The environment is often referred to as the key component of tourism because it is the bedrock for any tourism development (Holden, 2008). The environment comprises of the home environment and the destination environment, this is because the relationship between tourism and the environment is concerned not just with the destinations that tourists go to but also the societies where they come from. The environment in which tourism occurs is the key component in tourism development (Holden, 2008). The attributes of an environment can either be viewed as natural and/or cultural. Tourism development takes place where the natural/ cultural environments are attractive and desirable. Rocks, mountains, streams, beaches, flora and fauna to mention but a few are examples of natural environment that attract large number of tourist. The cultural environment entails the part of the environment that is man-made and developed. The material component of cultural environment are purpose built structures and sites, caves, historical buildings, architectural features and ancient monument. The non-material components of the cultural environment are the culture of the people which entails the folklores, dance and carnivals.

Tourism destination is defined as a “country, state, region city or town which is marketed or markets itself as a place for tourists to visit” (Holloway, 2006). It is an area or resort with facilities and services that meet the need of the tourist. Tourist destinations consist of attraction, amenities and accessibility. The long term success of tourist destinations will be significantly enhanced if the benefits they offer are unique. It is worthwhile to note that the more benefits a place can offer, the greater the attraction of the destination. Multiple attractions provide added value and will improve the chance of a successful destination. Destinations depend on consumer demand and have lifecycles in which they experience a period of growth, expansion and eventually decline (Cooper, Fletcher, Gilbert & Wanhill, 2008).

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The community a tourist visits is often termed the host community. Cook, Yale and Marqua (2006) defined the host community as towns or cities that welcome visitors and provide them with the desired services. Smith (2001) also defined host communities as people who live in the vicinity of the tourist attraction and are either directly or indirectly involved with, and / or affected by the tourism activities. Tourism involves some elements of interaction between the tourist and the destination environment. The consequences of these interactions are often referred to as the ‘impacts of tourism’. Most people think of tourism in terms of economic impacts, jobs and taxes. However, Kreag (2001) rightly pointed out that the range of impacts from tourism is broad and often influences areas beyond those commonly associated with tourism. Leaders as well as residents who understand the potential impacts of tourism can integrate this industry into their community in the most positive way.

The dense forest of the Imo StateSacred Grove, on the outskirts of Oguta, is one of the last remnants of primary high forest in southern Nigeria. It is regarded as the abode of Osun, the goddess of fertility, or the waters of life, one of the pantheons of Yoruba gods. Through the forest meanders the river Osun, and set within the forest sanctuary are Shrines, Sculptures and Art-works erected in honour of Osun and other Yoruba deities, many created in the past forty years by Suzanne Wenger and fellow New Sacred Art artists. The grove was recognised by United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organisation as a world heritage site in 2005.

1.2     Statement of Problem

Owing to the high level of income generated through tourism business, more attention has been given to the economic impact of tourism leaving the socio-cultural impacts that are also important aspects of the effects which are capable of sustaining or destroying tourism development. Tourism being an activity that involves the interaction of tourists and the hosts has impacts on the socio-cultural environment of the host communities. Since tourism has environment as the bed-rock for its development, environment in this context are the natural and cultural environment and being an activity that involves the interaction of the tourist with the cultural and natural environment, these interactions have impacts on the social live of the host communities. There should be a check on tourism development as it affects the social and cultural lives of the host community for sustainability to be achieved.

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1.3     Objective for the Study

The major objective of this research is to study the impacts of tourism on the quality life of residents in the host communities in Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are to

  1. Identify the various tourist attractions in these communities of Sacred Grove.
  2. Determine the impact of tourism development on the social lives of the host communities.
  3. Evaluate the various ways the impacts have affected the sustainability of local social lives of the host communities.

1.4     Research Questions

  1. What are the various tourism attractions in communities sacred grove?
  2. What are the impacts of tourism development on the social lives of the host communities?
  3. In what ways have the impacts of tourism development affected the sustainability of local social lives of the host communities?

1.5     Hypothesis

H0: There is no significance relationship between the various tourist attractions and impacts on resident communities?

H1: There is significance relationship between the various tourist attractions and impacts on resident communities?

1.6     Significance of Study

It is believed that the findings of this research work should provide detailed information on the how to manage tourist centers for a sustainable development and long term survival. It is also expected that the study will benefit the hospitality industries and management.

The research will also have a significance difference to the researcher. This is because the study will expose the researcher to so many related areas in the course of carrying out his research. This will enhance the researcher’s experience, knowledge and understanding on tourism and management for a sustainable development.


Pages:  32

Category: Seminar

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo                                     

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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