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Assessment Of Utilization Of Instructional Materials In Teaching And Learning Of Business Education Subject In Secondary Schools

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Abstract

The major purpose of this study was assessment of utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in secondary schools. This study adopted descriptive survey research design the study was conducted in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State. The population for this study was 189 teachers in the public secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone where business education subject is taught comprising male 54 and female 135. Instrument for data collection was structured questionnaire titled: Business Education Instructional Materials Utilization Assessment Questionnaire (BEIMUAQ) The instrument were sub-divided into 5 section (A – E), part A contain demographic variable of the respondent, while section B to E solicited information on the assessment of utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning business education subject. Section B addressed research question one and focused on the extent of availability of instructional materials utilized in teaching and learning of business education subject. The items adopted a four-point rating scale of Very Much Available (VMA) = 4, Just Available (JA) = 3, Rarely Available (RA) = 2, Not Available (NA) =1 while section C adopted Very Much Utilized (VMU) = 4, Utilized (U) = 3, Rarely Utilized (RU) = 2 and Not Utilized (NU) = 1.

Furthermore, section D and E adopted response categories of Strongly Agree (SA) = 4, Agree (A) = 3, Disagree (D) = 2, Strongly Disagree (SD) =1. The questionnaire was face- validated by three experts from the Department of Business Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument with a calculated coefficient of 0.93. The questionnaire was administered to the respondents by the researcher with the help of research assistants. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The data were analyzed using real limit of numbers on 4- point rating scale. Since the upper limit of 2.50 is 3.00, the items whose mean score were 2.50 and above were regarded as materials utilized and below 2.50 as not being utilized. t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0,05 level of significant. The findings shows that they use audio tape recorders in teaching and learning of business education subject, qualified business teachers with knowledge of instructional materials required to teach business education subject. The study therefore recommends that seminars and workshops should be organized for teachers on the availability and management of materials in schools and teachers need to update their skills in the area of modern technology to enable them discharge their duties effectively. 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Desirable changes in learners occur through good teaching. Good teaching and learning take place when the teachers are able to convey their messages in the simplest, most convincing and practical ways to the earner using concrete objects.  These concrete objects, according to Umoh-mac and Nkume (2006), are the instructional materials or teaching aids the teachers use in his teaching. The instructional materials enhance real and meaningful teaching and learning.  Instructional materials can serve as a communication media that transmit information from the teacher to the learner with the intent of facilitating learning.  Olaitan (2002) defined instructional material as all the practical and skill development resources that would facilitate the process of teaching and learning. Instructional materials are those devices that must be there for the teacher to us while teaching to make the lesson more meaningful, these include: textbooks, comfortable seats and well-ventilated classroom are materials needed in educational teaching and learning.

Instructional materials are needed for the implementation of any educational programme. They are inevitable because of the impact they make on teaching and learning process. There is no doubting the fact that the essence of all techniques in teaching is to expose the learner to the subjects matter. Unless adequate activities and materials are effectively employed, there is hardly a way the learner could be in contact with the subject matter. The use of instructional materials is recommended at any stage of the child’s developments and level of education. Uzoegwu (2001) opined that teachers are to employ instructional materials in their teaching in order to make sure that learning is more permanent in the mind of the learners. Instructional materials, the author further stated, provide the learners with meaningful, accurate and real experiences from the subject taught using instructional materials.

Instructional materials are aids teacher brings to class to help the teacher impact the lesson with ease. These include: charts, pictures, real objects. They are representatives of the fact the teacher intends to impact to the students. They are the teacher’s companion in the process of teaching. In agreement to this, Oyedele (2008) opined that teaching would be less meaningful without the use of teaching facilities and he went further to say that students will grope in the dark for a long time before getting a grasp of what to teach without instructional materials. Similarly, Chika (2001) agreed to the fact that teaching facilities apart from lending themselves to practical learning are equally essential for actual occupational/job performance for self-reliance. It is indeed very necessary that the teachers especially the business teachers use instructional materials so that students can have the opportunity of seeing, touching and manipulating them. This would ultimately increase the students’ interest   and achievement in the subject matter. Agreeing with this state, Aliyu (2001) postulated that business education being a vocational education programme cannot do without adequate use of instructional materials like typewriting machines, dictation machines and tape recorders among others. Therefore instruction materials are any materials use by teacher to teach business education subject easily with clear understanding, contract and concrete example to aids teaching and learning of business education subject.

Business education is defined by Anao (2006) as the sum total of knowledge, skills and attitude that are required for successfully promoting and administering business enterprise either as an employee or entrepreneur. In the same vein, Nwaokolo (2008) also described business education as skills, attitude and knowledge acquired from schools for performing business operations of personal or corporate nature. Business education at the

Junior Secondary School level comprised of the following subjects taught as pre-vocational and as an integrated subjects: Introduction to Business Studies, Office practice, Commerce, Book-keeping Shorthand and Keyboarding/Typewriting. According to Obi (2008) state that business subjects are made up of the following vocational subjects: Accounting,   Economics, Commerce, Computer Studies/Keyboarding, Business method, Shorthand in Secondary School level.

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Whether at the junior or senior secondary school level, the principal objective of this subject remain to bequeath the students with the relevant job skills, knowledge and attitude necessary for paid or self-employment as well as for higher education in business areas. Osuala (2002) stated that the business education curriculum in the secondary school is a special area of instruction that deals directly with business skills and techniques, business knowledge and facts, business understanding, economic understanding, business attitudes and business appreciations necessary to understand and adjust to economic and social institution called business. According to Olowodun (2006) business education is full of demonstrable skills; hence instructional materials are required and needed for effective teaching and learning in the classroom learning process. The materials for teaching business education subject such as: the recommended textbooks, to the more sophisticated overhead projectors, manual/electric typewriters, calculating machines, duplicating/ photocopying machines, stopwatches, file cabinets, punching machines, models, chalkboard, or their representatives that help the teacher to communicate effectively to the students.  These materials make learning more permanent and to develop continuity of thought among the learners.

The utilization of available instructional materials in the teaching of business subjects would promotes meaningful communication between the teacher and students, enhance effective teaching, increase the interest of learners and motivate individualized instruction in which learning is assured (Ukoha, 2006). This implies that, the ultimate goal of utilizing instructional facilities is to facilitate teaching and learning.

Utilization is the proportion of the available time (expressed usually as a percentage) that a piece of equipment or instructional materials is operating.  It is the ratio of time an instructional material is busy (working) divided by the time it is available. According to Uwaifo(2009)  Utilization of instructional materials involves making teaching and learning of subjects more practical and effective. Utilization of instructional materials gives correct representation to the abstract ideas, thereby making their meanings clearer.  Proper utilization of instructional facilities serves a useful purpose in promoting understanding to concept and principles of business subjects.

According to Okoro (2005), the assessment and evaluation of instructional materials are usually carried out in two ways: through the recommendation by teachers and through standards – prescribed by government, examination bodies etc.  Teachers know when instructional materials required for their courses are adequate or inadequate.  They know the extent of the deficiency and could say what must be provided if their teaching is to be effectively carried out.  The government and examination bodies may also recommend certain levels of instructional materials for effective teaching of various courses. Such prescribed standards can be the basis for assessment. Where the standard is not available the teachers and the principal can give reliable information on the availability and utilization of the materials. However, the teachers information as per the utilization and availability of the materials may be more reliable because they are directly involved in the utilization of the materials, therefore assessment is any bases of measurement against a standard. Business education teachers should be involved in the generation of instructional materials available and utilized.

Business education teachers comprises of teachers and instructors that are teaching in secondary schools  Njoku (2004) states that a business education teachers is a person who holds a degree in business education from a recognized University or an NCE (Nigerian Certificate of Education). The author further stated that holders of NCE from the recognized colleges of education in business education are competent to teach business subject programme. In the same vein, Osuala (2009) viewed business education teacher as a person who has undergone a 4- year programme in a reputable university or 3- year programme through NCE and has been certified as competent for the award of Bachelor’s degree/NCE in business education after meeting the requirements of the institution and the department (Njoku, 2008). The author added that any person who has obtained a degree or a professional certification in areas such as accountancy, marketing and office technology and management and also obtained a post-graduate certificate in educational foundations and pedagogy clearly qualified as a business education teacher. Business education teachers play important role in the teaching and learning of business education subject as they are professionally equipped to impart manipulation skills to the learners for employment. It is therefore important that the business teacher should be conversant with different instructional materials and strategies. The variety of instructional materials and strategies available for utilization by business teachers indicate that business teachers have preference for certain materials over other in teaching and learning processes.

Teaching is the process where an expert, a more experienced person with more knowledge and skill assists a less experience or knowledgeable individual to gain knowledge and experience, Onwuka (2005) viewed teaching as a process of making impression on passive students, hammering in the facts. The preoccupation of teachers involved in this method is to hand over to the students whatever the teachers themselves received from others. This conception of teaching was based on the misconception that the students’ heads were empty and blank. The teacher’s role then was to fill the empty heads with facts irrespective of whether they are relevant, understood by the students. It is an attempt to bring about desirable changes in the learner’s behavior and it reflects the expected behaviour needed in improving on the learner and the society where he lives.

For the fact that business education subject are more of practical than theoretical, they should be taught practically. The Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre, CESAC (2009) committee on business subjects gave a very serious consideration to the use of materials and equipment for teaching and learning of the subjects. Some of the equipment and materials that CESAC considered as basic for enhancing teaching and learning of business subjects include: typewriters, stapling machines, alarm-clock, perforators, stopwatches, tape recorders, file jackets, ruled chalk board and others. The use of these materials in instructional delivery will improve students’ learning and achievement.

Frender (2000) defines learning as changes in perception; knowledge of an individual, the acquisition of new knowledge and skills is generally regarded as a constructive activity such as working-memory capacity and general knowledge.  Gibbs (2002) suggests that learning is much more an evolutionary, sense making, experimental process of development than simple acquisition. Therefore, learning is a process which causes a change in behaviour of an individual. Teachers should endeavour to teach their students how to learn. Adesina (2008) asserted that the quality of education that children receive bears direct relevance to utilization of instructional facilities, which include teaching aids and the overall atmosphere in which learning takes place.

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Unfortunately the present state of materials there is nothing to write home about their materials are obsolete that is, not matching with the current development the little ones available are not utilized because some materials lose some component to make it functional. The teachers having attended difference schools and colleges so they posses difference experiences and knowledge, so due to invariably have direct effect on the utilization of the materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in secondary schools this is projected to student in Enugu State.

According to Obi (2008) observed that many schools are unable to teach business education subject due to inadequate business education teachers and equipment. The poor performance of students in business education subject as lamented by Odoh (2001) that their deterioration in students’ achievement must have been due to the non- utilization of instructional materials in classroom, therefore it become necessary the assessment of utilization of instructional materials for teaching and learning of business education subject in secondary schools in Enugu education zone of Enugu State.

Helen (2009) asserted that instructional materials are used in teaching skills, presenting a visual description and changing attitudes.  Similarly, Ogunmilade (2004) opined that teaching aids can help to present ideas, facts and information. The author also argued that teaching aids can stimulate interest and arouse the enthusiasm of learners and they can impress pictures and images vividly in their minds and memory of the learners.  Therefore, teachers should not be afraid to improvise their own instructional materials in order to teach effectively (Okeke, 1990).  Instructional materials in the classroom can be classified into two broad categories.  The types that appeal to the sense of sight are classified as visual materials and those that appeal to the sense of hearing are classified as audio materials.  The ones that combine both the senses of sight and hearing are classified as audio-visual materials.

Audio materials include the radio and the tape recorded materials.  In Nigeria, the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) broadcast education programmes.  Many schools integrate these programmes into the classroom lessons.  The advantages of the audio materials include: saving manpower as one teacher can teach several classes at the same time, saving time as the message is fast in getting to the audience.  However, the disadvantages are that the teacher is not seen during radio lessons and the learners do not always have the time to ask questions since the teacher is not usually seen.  The audio materials cannot handle practical and physical skill-oriented lessons (Unachukwu, 2000).

On the other hand, the visual materials are pictures, objects, specimens, textbooks, and other printed materials.  Chalkboard, projected materials, charts, posters and diagrams.  The visual materials can further be classified as: three dimensional which include specimen, models, and mock-ups.  The other class of visual materials is the printed materials which include newspapers, magazines, journals, pamphlets, and textbooks.  The third class is the projected materials like slides films, film-strips and overhead projectors.

Visual materials have some advantages in teaching and learning processes, according to Unachukwu (2003) over 80% of what is learnt is through the sense of vision with regard to the printed materials like textbooks which are standard books which students use for particular subjects have the following advantages:  textbooks help in individualizing instruction by allowing the learners to move at their own speed.  It allows them to select topics of their interest and need (Ofoegbu, 2002).  According to Brown, Lewis and

Harcleroad (2007) textbooks are regarded as helpful in improving the teacher skills (especially through teachers’ manual and notes), and in suggesting ways to handle instructional problems, its disadvantages are its expensive and time consume. Going by the above therefore, one can see clearly the importance of instructional materials and that lack of it could lead to poor performance, poor motivation of students which tends to make them loose interest in business education subject. In the light of the above, this study focused on assessment of utilization of instructional materials for teaching and learning of Business Education Subject in Secondary School in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State.

Statement of the Problem

The Nigerian national curriculum for secondary schools (2007) recognized Business subjects as one of the basic subjects which shall be taught to students to enable them acquire prevocational skills for further knowledge and skills. The subject provides practical skills for occupational purposes by enabling students to acquire basic knowledge of business skills, develop basic skills in office occupation and for personal use. Therefore, the subject prepares students for further training in business subjects and provide orientation to entrant to a life of work. One of the major requirements for realizing the lofty goals of the National Policy on education through Basic education is the effective teaching and learning of the subject components. This requires that teachers have knowledge, understanding and mastery of the subject matter on one hand and the pedagogical skills of transmitting such knowledge and skills to their students.

Unfortunately the present states of instructional materials are nothing to write home about, some of these instructional materials are obsolete that is not matching with the current development, the little ones available are not utilized because some materials lose their component to make it functional. The teachers having attended difference schools and colleges so they posses difference experiences and knowledge, so invariably have direct effect on the utilization of the materials in teaching and learning of business education subjects in secondary schools this is projected to student in Enugu State.

According to Obi (2008) observed that many schools are unable to teach business education subject due to inadequate business education teachers and equipment. The poor performance of students in business education subject as lamented by Odoh (2001) that their deterioration in students’ achievement must have been due to the non- utilization of instructional materials in classroom, therefore it become necessary the assessment of utilization of instructional materials for teaching and learning of business education subject in secondary schools in Enugu education zone of Enugu State

Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to assess the utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu State. Specifically, the study seeks to assess the:

  1. Extent of availability of instructional materials utilization in teaching and learning of business education subject in Enugu education zone.
  2. Extent of teachers utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in Enugu education zone.
  3. challenges to teachers utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in Enugu education zone.
  4. strategies for enhancing teacher utilization of the instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in Enugu education zone.
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Significance of the Study

The result of this study will be of immense benefit to the behavioural theory, ministry of education, business education teachers, students, researchers, society and curriculum planners.

  The theoretical significance of this study will enhance the Classical Behavioural Theory of E.L. Thorndike on which the study hinges. This theory states that bonds are strengthened by the same stimulus and response repeatedly occurring together. The use of the instructional materials in the teaching and learning of business education subjects would stimulate the interest of students and improve the academic achievement of the students in the subjects.

The outcome of this study would be beneficial to the government in planning and decision making. It would help in policy formulation, implementation, evaluation and reformation. The findings of study will reveal to the government the instructional materials needed for effective teaching and learning of business subjects. Government would use the outcome of this study to design an effective training package for teachers as it concerns the utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business subjects in secondary schools. The knowledge of the findings would also help government to provide adequate instructional materials for the teaching and learning of business education subject in the schools.

The finding of this study will also be beneficial to the business education teachers. The study would reveal appropriate teaching materials that could improve the teachers’ effectiveness as well as ways to improve the utilization of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of business subjects. It is hoped that the teachers will employ them; thereby improving the teaching of business subjects by utilizing appropriate materials in the classroom. Through the findings of the study, the teachers would seek professional development in the use of the instructional materials in their learning.

Business education students would also benefit from the findings of this study. The findings of the study would help the students the benefit from the effective utilization of the instructional materials that will follow from the adoption of the strategies identified from the study while the teachers would from the findings adopt effective strategies for utilizing the instructional materials in their teaching, the students would understand the lesson better and also use the instructional materials well during their private learning and peer tutoring.

The society would also benefit from the result of the study the youth be occupied when the knowledge and skills gained by the students. . When the students acquire functional and saleable skills, the issue of unemployment would be reduced to the barest minimum and every individual would be useful to himself and to the society. The students would become self reliant and gain employment after graduation. This will improve the economy of the society.

Curriculum planners will also benefit from the result of this study. The curriculum planners would obtain the necessary information which will help to improve the business education syllabus. It is hoped that the result of the study would assist the curriculum planners in the review and update of business education curriculum especially in relation to the instructional materials and their usage.

The findings of this study will serve as a guide to researchers who would want to conduct further study on the effectiveness of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subjects in secondary schools. The findings of the study would provide reference materials to future researchers in business education teaching and learning.

Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the study:

  1. What is the assessment of the availability of instructional materials utilization in teaching and learning of business education subject in secondary schools?
  2. To what extent do teachers assess the utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in the secondary schools?
  3. What is the assessment of the challenges facing teachers utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in the secondary schools?
  4. What is the assessment of strategies for enhancing teachers’ utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in the secondary schools        

Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses formulated for the study will be tested at 0.05 level of significance:

Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean score assessment of male and female Business education teachers  on extent of availability of  instructional material utilization in teaching and learning of business education subject in secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between the mean score assessment of male and female business education teachers on the extent of teachers’ utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State.

Ho3: There is no significant difference between the mean score assessment of male and female business education teachers on the challenges facing teachers utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State.

Ho4: There is no significant difference between the mean score assessment of male and female business education teachers on the strategies for enhancing teachers utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business education subject in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State.

Scope of the Study

The study is delimited to all the public secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State where business education subject is being thought.  The study will assess the utilization of instructional materials for teaching and learning of business education subject in senior secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State.


Pages:  100

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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