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Food Science & Technology

Quality Evaluation Of Moin-Moin Produced From Cowpea (Vigna Ungiculata) And Rice(Oryza Sativa) Composite Flour

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ABSTRACT

Moin-moin was produced from the blends of cowpea flour and rice flour in varying ratios. The proximate composition, mineral composition and acceptability of moin-moin prepared from cowpea/rice flour blends in the ratio 100:0 (A, control), 95:5 (B); 90:10 (C), 85:15 (D), 80:20 (E), 75:25 (F) and 70:30 (G), respectively were investigated. Result showed that moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude fat, crude protein and carbohydrate contents of the moin-moin samples ranged from 63.83% to 67.59%, 1.59% to 1.91%, 0.68% to 0.87%, 4.29% to 10.88%, 9.59% to 12.54% and 6.21% to 19.38%. Inclusion of rice flour recorded significant changes in the protein and ash content of moin-moin samples. Result obtained for mineral composition analysis showed that calcium content of the samples ranged from 31.42mg/100g to 43.69mg/100g, sodium content ranged from 48.54mg/100g to 57.67mg/100g, potassium content ranged from 74.72mg/100g to 85.54mg/100g, iron content ranged from 0.61mg/100g to 0.77mg/1000g, magnesium content ranged from 28.65mg/100g to 34.59mg/1000g, phosphorus content ranged from 113.68mg/100g to 137.62mg/1000g and zinc content ranged from 1.21mg/100g to 1.58mg/100g respectively. Data obtained in the mineral composition shows that with exception to iron and zinc, the mineral content of the moin- moin samples increased significantly (p< 0.05) with increased substitution of cowpea flour with rice flour. Sensory properties of the moin- moin samples produced from cowpea- rice flour blends were affected with the addition of rice flour in different levels. This study has shown that increasing the percentage of rice flour in cowpea/rice flour blends for moin-moin preparation improved the mineral composition of moin-moin, creating a novel use for rice. Meal produced from the cowpea- rice flour blends were generally accepted by the panelists, thus leading to the production of moin- moin with better nutritional quality as well as sensory acceptance which makes it a good prospect for commercial producers of moin- moin. However there was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the sensory attributes of the moin- moin sample when the rice flour in the blend was increased beyond 10%.

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 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Moin-moin is a Nigerian steamed bean pudding made from a mixture of washed and peeled black eyed peas, onions and fresh ground peppers (usually a combination of bell pepper and chilli or scotch bonnet). It is a protein-rich food that is a staple in Nigeria. Moin-moin is usually eaten alone as a meal, but can also be eaten with boiled white rice and stew, jellof rice and a lot more. Moin-moin meal can be cooked in various ways; the common methods include cooking moin-moin in bowls, aluminium foil bags, banana leaves, or in heat proof onylons.

The major ingredient for moin-moin production is the Cowpea (Vigna ungiuculata). Like other grains, legumes are important foodstuff in tropical and subtropical countries.

Cowpea provides essential nutrients and high level of protein about 25% making it extremely valuable where many people cannot afford protein foods such as meat and fish (Sefadeh 1997).

Cowpeas are excellent sources of vitamins such as vitamin
B and other trace elements in the diet of most rural populace (Bressani and Elias, 1999).  Cowpea is often eaten with rice or any other cereal for a protein balance.

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Rice (Oryza Sativa) a cereal grain is the seed of the grass species, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world’s human population, especially in Asia. Rice has the highest protein digestibility among other staple cereals. The true digestibility of cooked rice protein in human is 88.4% (WHO 2003).

According to Enwere (1985) milled rice is very low in B-Vitamins such as riboflavin. Rice, like the other cereal grains is low in lysine. Often times rice and beans are eaten together to complement each other nutritionally.

1.2    Statement of Problem

The common problems encountered by people when they consume cowpea includes digestive complaints e.g. flatulence (gas), bloating, chest pain, abdominal pain and constipation. Cowpea contains oligosaccharides (complex carbohydrates), that the body is unable to digest, and a bacterium in the large intestine ferments the carbohydrates and in turn releases gases.  A legumes are lacking in sulphur-containing amino acids, while these amino In this course, different nutritional disorders may arise, depending on which nutrients are under or over abundant in these cereal products.

1.3     Justification of the study

Cowpea has a well recognised deficiency of the essential sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cystein but is comparatively rich in lysine, unlike the other cereals. Production of moin-moin from blends rice and cowpea flours will create a novel product with balanced protein and better nutritional value. It will also reduce the problem of flatulence, bloating, heart-burn e.t.c. especially for the low income who may not afford moin-moin and rice separately.

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Economically, it will result in cost saving for consumers since the two complementary foods are blended into one. It will equally create variety in the business of moin-moin.

1.4     Objectives of the study

The broad objective of this work is the production and quality evaluation of moin-moin from cowpea and rice composite flour at different dilution levels. The Specific Objectives include:

  • To produce cowpea flour and rice flour
  • To produce a composite flour of cowpea and rice flours at different ratios.
  • To produce moin-moin from cowpea flour and rice flour composite.
  • To evaluate the proximate, mineral and sensory properties of the moin-moin samples.

Pages:  62

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF              

Chapters: 1-5                                 

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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