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Nutrition & Dietetics

Blood Glucose Response Of Rice Varieties Garnished With Cabbage On Normoglycemic Subjects

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ABSTRACT

This study aimed at determining the blood glucose response of rice varieties garnished with cabbage in normoglycemic subjects. A randomized, cross-sectional study on the blood glucose response of rice varieties garnished with cabbage on normoglycemic adult volunteers was carried out in Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State Nigeria. Informed consent was given by the subjects before the study was carried out and subjects that were diabetic, pre-diabetic, overweight, obessed and on medication were excluded from the study. Anthropometric measurements consisting of weight, height, BMI and waist/hip circumference were carried out on the subjects. Capillary blood sample was collected from each subject taken at 0 (fasting), 30, 60, 90 and120 minutes after each of the test meal using sterile lancing device. Blood glucose was measured using Accu check-glucometer. Results obtained from the study showed that the mean age of the subjects was 22.00±2.054. The mean height and weight of the subjects were 165±10.72 and 63.35±11.38 and the mean BMI of the subjects was 22.98±2.62. Results from the proximate composition of the food samples showed that Foreign Rice recorded higher moisture (23.60%) and protein (12.20%) contents, while lower values were seen in Local Rice (20.40% moisture and 10.50% protein). Local Rice with cabbage recorded higher fat (14.80%) and ash (1.80%), while lower values were observed in Foreign Rice (13.20% fat and 1.71% ash). High fiber (0.51%) value was seen in Foreign Rice with cabbage while local rice with cabbage recorded a lower fiber (0.42%) content. Local rice with cabbage recorded higher carbohydrate (52.07%), dietary fiber (2.21%) and energy (383.51kcal) contents were observed in Local Rice while local rice with cabbage recorded lower values (48.76% carbohydrate, 2.17% dietary fiber and 362.67kcal of energy). The glycemic index of foreign rice was 20.63 while that of local rice variety was 7.38. The glycemic response of foreign rice with cabbage was higher, while that of local rice was lower. The glycemic load of foreign rice variety reported 0.45, while local rice with cabbage reported a glycemic load value of 0.16. The glycemic index obtained shows that the rice varieties are low glycemic index and glycemic load foods.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of study

Rice is the dietary staple of the people of Nigeria. It comprises 75-80% carbohydrates as starch. White rice is the most commonly consumed type, but brown (whole grain) rice is becoming increasingly popular in some Western countries due to its health benefits. Various products are made from rice. These include rice flour, rice syrup, rice bran oil, and rice milk. It is usually white in color, but brown rice can come in a variety of shades; brown, reddish, purplish, or black. It is composed of carbohydrates, with small amounts of protein and virtually no fat. Carbohydrates in rice are mainly in the form of starch, accounting for up to 90% of the total dry weight and 87% of the total caloric content (Mykhanen, 2003). Brown rice contains a fair amount of fiber (1.8%), while white rice is very low in fiber (0.3%). One cup of boiled brown rice (195 grams) contains approximately 3.5 grams of fiber and varying amounts of resistant starch are also found in both white and brown rice. Resistant starch helps feed the beneficial bacteria in the gut, stimulating their growth (Mykhanen, 2003).

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In the colon, resistant starch leads to the formation of short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate, which may improve colon health and cut the risk of colon cancer (WHO, 2006). Many vitamins and minerals are concentrated in the bran and germ, which are components of brown rice, but not white. Rice is generally a poor source of vitamins and minerals. However, considerable amounts may be concentrated in the bran of brown rice. Starch is the most common form of carbohydrates in foods, made up of long chains of glucose known as amylose and amylopectin.

The fact that higher proportion of rice starch is included in the Nigeria diet signifies the need for investigating the bioavailability and metabolic responses of rice. There is a considerable variation in bioavailability of carbohydrates among different foods though a higher percentage of carbohydrates in most human diet is digested and absorbed in the small intestine. It has been suggested that diets containing large amounts of rapidly digestible carbohydrates may be detrimental to health as they elevate glucose concentration in blood, which is crucial for diabetics (Jenkins et al. 1988). Glycemic index (GI) has been developed for the systematic classification of foods containing carbohydrates, which provides a means of quantitatively comparing the blood glucose responses following ingestion of equivalent amounts of digestible carbohydrates from different foods. It has been suggested that low Glycaemic Index foods have beneficial effects in the management of diabetes and hyperlipidemia and high glycemic index foods are crucial as they rapidly elevate glucose concentration in blood (Brand-Miller et al., 2002; Mosdolet al., 2007).

Studies have shown that the digestibility of starch is partly attributed to the inherent properties of starch including crystalline, granular structure and amylose: amylopectin ratio. Therefore, the type of crop and variety play an important role in determining the rate of digestion of their starch, hence the glycemic index. It has become difficult to classify rice cultivated in the world as high or low Glycaemic Index food based on the results around the world. Glycemic Index of rice has been established as low as 59 to as high as 109 (Miller et al., 1992; Freiet al., 2003).

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The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal. The body naturally tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis. The insulin reaction and other mechanisms, regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimolar.

Blood sugar levels outside the normal range may be an indicator of a medical condition. A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia.

Glycemic index (GI) is the ranking of foods based on postprandial glucose response compared with a reference food. High glycemic index foods produce high concentrations of blood glucose and increase insulin demand and could plausibly contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. GI is usually applied in the context of the quantity of the food and the amount of carbohydrate in the food that is actually consumed. A related measure, the glycemic load (GL), factors this by multiplying the glycemic index of the food in question by the carbohydrate content of the actual consumed serving. Low glycemic index diets are essential to address blood glucose control as consumption of foods with a high glycemic index is hypothesized to contribute to insulin resistance, which is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular disease and some cancers, (Ogbujiet al., 2016).

The release of six varieties of Rice with high levels of beta carotene (a precursor of vitamin A) and lower dry matter however, necessitates the need for information on the ability of vitamin A Rice to promote a better blood glucose response in normal subjects and prevent the development of disease in healthy individuals. Findings of the G.I. of Vitamin A with life styles associated with metabolic diseases.

1.2 Statement of problem

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopts continuous consumption of starch as one of the key indicators of poverty, Type 2 diabetes and obesity as improved nutrition is critical to good health. It is imperative to conduct a study that will provide basis for intervention. Dietary and nutritional assessment of a group of persons is very important for proper diet planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce cases of mortality related to high level of blood glucose.

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In recent years, several clinical and epidemiological studies have attempted to associate various food intakes with the risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease [WHO, 2003]. Some studies showed that the consumption of starchy foods, particularly processed foods, increases the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, whereas there is controversy over poultry. Moreover, other studies have suggested that a high fish and seafood consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in populations with a prevalence of obesity, while others have found no benefits (ADA, 2004). In addition, results from the Health Professionals, Follow-up Study indicate that a high intake of low-fat dairy or skimmed milk products, but not whole milk, was associated with a lower risk of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus among men (Frost et al., 2006).

Since the results from previous studies on the effects of food groups on indices of glycemic control appear conflicting, we sought to evaluate the blood glucose response in consumption of rice varieties among normoglycemic subjects.

1.3       General objective

The general objective of this study was to determine blood glucose response of rice varieties garnished with cabbage in normoglycemic subjects.

1.3.1    Specific Objectives

The specific objective of this study is to;

  1. Assess the anthropometric characteristics of the respondent
  2. determine the proximate composition of rice varieties and cabbage
  3. determine the dietary composition of rice varieties and cabbage
  4. determine the blood glucose response of rice varieties in normoglycemic subjects

 1.4       Significance of the Study

The result or findings of this study will be of immense benefits in the following ways;

  1. The public health workers, nutritionist and dieticians, young adults and researchers.
  2. It will expand the frontier of human knowledge and help to provide substantial public health support for the encouragement of consuming Low Glycemic Index meals in Nigeria.
  3. It will help to support plans to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in various vulnerable groups.
  4. It may also have an important impact on fat oxidation in Nigeria and
  5. It will also serve as literature/reference material for researches and input to the literature available in this area of study.

Pages:  71

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF              

Chapters: 1-5                                 

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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