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Nutrition & Dietetics

Nutrient Composition And Sensory Properties Of Cookies Made From Hungry Rice (Digitaria Exilis) And Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea) Flour Blends

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ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at assessing the nutrient and organoleptic properties of cookies made from hungry rice (Digitaria exilis) flour and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) flour blends. Hungry rice, groundnut and baking ingredients such as sugar, butter, eggs, vanilla flavour and baking powder were purchased from Relief market Owerri, Imo State. The Hungry rice was sorted to remove stones and chaff, washed, sundried and milled using a milling machine to produce hungry rice flour. The groundnut was washed, sun dried and milled (attrition mill), to produce groundnut flour. Four blends were prepared by homogenously mixing hungry rice flour and groundnut flour in the proportion 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70: 30 (hungry rice flour: groundnut flour) and used in the cookie production. The proximate, minerals and vitamin were determined using standard methods. One way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests were used to separate the means among the samples. Significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the fat and protein content of the samples. The highest moisture, (7.86%), and carbohydrate (70.12%) values were observed in sample A while the highest ash (6.04%), fat (12.65), fibre (4%), and protein (9.77%) values were observed in sample D.  The lowest moisture (5.45%) and carbohydrate (62.50%) were observed in sample D, lowest ash (4.53%) and fibre (2.80%) were observed in sample C while the lowest fat (7.81%) and protein (7.00%) were observed in sample B and A respectively. The highest calcium (145mg) and zinc (2.29mg) values were observed in sample B while sample D had the highest values in the potassium (290 mg), sodium (282 mg), and iron (1.40 mg) content. The lowest calcium (115.0 mg), potassium (161.5mg), sodium (268.5 mg), iron (0.63 mg) and zinc (1.91%) were observed in sample A. Significant differences (P<0.05) was observed in the vitamin A tested in this study and it ranged from 19.37g in sample B to 23.83g in sample A. There were no significant differences (P<0.05) in the aroma, colour, taste, texture, crispiness and overall acceptability of the samples. Aroma (7.40), colour (7.40) and texture (6.30) scored highest in sample B, taste (6.50) and overall acceptability (6.90) scored highest in sample A, while crispiness scored highest in sample C. The lowest value for aroma (7.05), colour (6.60), taste (5.70) and texture (5.85) were observed in sample C, the lowest value for taste (6.20), and overall acceptability (6.50) were observed sample B, while the lowest value for crispiness (6.35) was observed in sample A. The result of this study shows that acceptable cookies with enhanced nutritional content were produced by substituting groundnut flour with hungry rice flour at different ratios.

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CHAPTER ONE

  •                          INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

A cookie is a baked or cooked food that is small, flat and sweet. It usually contains flour, sugar and some type of oil and fat (Akpapunam and Darbe, 2009). Cookies represent the largest category of snack foods in most parts of the world (Lorenz, 2004). They are regarded as a form of confectionery product dried to low moisture content and widely consumed by individuals in all age groups (Okaka, 2009). In Nigeria, like many other developing countries, the increasing phenomenon of urbanization, coupled with the growing number of working mothers, have contributed greatly to the popularity and increased consumption of snack foods such as cookies and biscuits (Okaka, 2009). A cookie is a baked or cooked food that is small, flat and sweet. It usually contains flour, sugar and some type of oil and fat (Akpapunam and Darbe, 2009).

Cookies are a rich source of fat, protein and carbohydrate hence they provide energy and are also a good source of minerals (Kure and Daniel, 2007). They can be served with soft drinks or tea, and taken between meals like any other snack. In Nigeria, cookie consumption is continually growing and there has been increasing reliance on imported wheat (Akpapunam and Darbe, 2009). Wheat flour, the main ingredient for cookies is mainly imported to Nigeria because of unfavourable climatic conditions for its commercial growth. The projected global market for cookies in 2016 is reported to be around $1,825.00 billion dollars (Lorenz, 2004).

Composite flour can be defined as a mixture of several flours obtained from roots and tubers, cereal, legumes, etc., with or without the addition of wheat flour (Adeyemi and Ogazi, 2005). Usually, the aim of producing composite flour is to get a product that is better than the individual components (Ali et al., 2012). Better may mean improved properties or performances, or in some cases, improved economies. The nutritional value of cereal flours that are poor in lysine but rich in the sulfur containing amino acids is improved by the addition of legume flours, and the nutritional value of root and tuber flours, which are poor in protein, is sufficiently improved by the addition of cereal flours (Gari, 2012). Cereals and legumes are good sources of protein, which complement each other with respect to their amino acid profile (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985).

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Hungry rice (Digitaria exilis) is the term for two cultivated grains in the Digitaria genus which are notable crops in parts of West Africa(Olumakaiyeet al., 2008). Hungry rice is commonly called acha, or fonio (Lowe, 2003).

It is an important crop in East Nigeria and Southern Niger (Ayo, 2008) (James, 2005). Acha holds high nutritional value to humans. It has more nutritional value than other grains and is rich in calcium, magnesium and zinc (Gari, 2012). Furthermore, it is a good source of fibers and phytonutrients. (Lourdes et al., 2014). Hungry rice flour could be mixed with other legume flour to make cookies, biscuits and (Pablo et al., 2003).

Ground nut (Arachis hypogaea), also known as peanut (Choi, 2001) and taxonomically classified as a legume crop is grown mainly for its edible seeds.(Choi, 2001). It is widely grown in the tropics and subtropics, being important to both small and large commercial producers. It is classified as both a grain and legume (Seijo et al., 2010), because of its high oil content. Groundnuts are similar in taste and nutritional profile to tree nuts such as walnuts and almonds, and as a culinary nut are often served in similar ways in Western cuisines (Jauron, 2011). Groundnut flour is made from crushed, fully or partly defatted peanuts. Groundnut flour, depending on the quantity of fat removed (Jauron, 2011).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is still a major public health issue in developing countries (World Food Programme, 2011). It is associated with as much as 50-60% of under-five mortality in poor countries. According to Anger (2011), 70% of the over 140 million Nigerians currently live below the poverty line of 1 dollar per day. This is further engaged with inadequate formal education, poor snacks diversification and as well as poor hygiene (Gurung, 2010).

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Hungry rice flour and Groundnut flour which contain considerable amount of protein and other nutrients can be used in producing snacks that can contribute to an individual’s protein and total calorie intake. Therefore, this research work seeks to evaluate the nutritional and sensory properties hungry rice flour and groundnut flour based cookies.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.3.1 General objective of the study

The general objective of this study was to determine the nutrient composition and sensory properties of cookies produced from hungry rice(Digitariaexilis) flour and groundnut (Arachishypogaea) flour blend.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of this study include to:

  • Determine the proximate composition of the cookies made from hungry rice groundnut flour blends.
  • Determine the mineral composition of the cookies made from hungry rice groundnut flour blends.
  • Determine the vitamins composition of the cookies made from hungry rice groundnut flour blends.
  • Evaluate sensory properties of the cookies made from hungry rice groundnut flour blends.

Significance of study

  1. Data obtained from this study will be utilized by scientists as a basis for further research.
  2. This study will provide information to nutritionists and dieticians on the nutritional composition of hungry rice flour and groundnut flour and help in the dietary management of specific diseases as well as guide nutrition counseling.
  3. It will provide the information to the consumers about the nutrient contents of cookies produced from hungry rice and groundnut flours.
  4. Data obtained from this study will enable food industry to incorporate hungry rice as a substitute for wheat in producing cookies and other snacks.

Pages:  70

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo                            

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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