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Nutrition & Dietetics

Chemical And Microbial Composition Of Moi-Moi Sold In Imo State University Canteen

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ABSTRACT

This study aimed at evaluating the chemical and microbial composition of moi-moi sold in Imo State University Canteens in Owerri. Three (3) samples of moi-moi were purchased from different canteens in the Imo State University, Owerri and were labeled samples A, B and C. The bean grains were sorted, washed, dehulled and prepared using standard recipe for moi-moi as described by Harold (2003) with slight modification.  It was immediately wrapped in sterile aluminum foil to prevent contamination was labeled as sample D. The proximate composition, total viable count, isolation and characterization of bacteria present in the food were determined using the standard methods. The analysis showed that Sample A had the highest moisture (83.81%) content while Sample C had the lowest moisture (77%) content. Sample A had the lowest ash (3.73%), fibre (1.98%), protein (4.24%) contents respectively. sample B and D had the highest fat (3.93%) and carbohydrate (7.77%) contents while sample A had the lowest fat (2.13%) and carbohydrate (4.07%) contents respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the fat and carbohydrate content of the samples. The moisture and fat content of sample C and D were not significantly different (p>0.05) while the moisture and fat content of sample A and B were significantly different (p<0.05). Sample C had the highest bacteria load (8.1×104cfu/ml) while sample D had the lowest bacteria load (1.23×102cfu/ml). two bacteria colonies were isolated from sample A and were characterized as Bacillus pasteurii and Bacillus macerans. Four bacteria colonies were isolated from sample B and were characterized as Klebsiellaoxytoca, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Corynebacteriumdiptheroides, Listeria seeligeri, Four bacteria colonies were isolated from sample C and were characterized as Brevundimonasdiminuta, Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus amylotropicus, Bacillus polymyxa. Two bacteria colonies were isolated from sample D and were characterized as Bacillus siamensis and Enterobacterdissolvens. Results revealed that the hygienic condition of the moimoi was not an ideal standard for human consumption, therefore recommends amongst others that Implementation of food hygiene in handling and preparation of moin-moin products improves its nutritional quality.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                       INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

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Moi-moi is a Nigerian steamed bean pudding made from a mixture of washed and peeled black eyed peas, onions and fresh ground peppers (usually a combination of bell pepper and chilli or scotch bonnet). It is a protein-rich food that is a staple in Nigeria. Moi-moi is usually eaten alone as a meal, but can also be eaten with boiled stew, jellof moi-moi and a lot more. Moi-moi meal can be cooked in various ways; the common methods include cooking moi-moi in bowls, aluminium foil bags, banana leaves, or in heat proof nylons (Harold, 2003).

On the basis of microbial composition, food safety exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life (FAO, 2014). Unfortunately however, in our country Nigeria today, hunger and malnutrition are on the rise due to increase in population, shortage of farmlands, and high food prices (Von Braun et al., 2008). Protein malnutrition is one of the major public health challenges throughout the developing world especially in many parts of Africa where the diets are predominantly starchy. This is because; the major food crops in these areas are cereals, roots, and tubers (Nnabuk, Ita, Dodo, and Paul, 2012; Olatidoye and Sobowale, 2011). Legumes are an excellent source of plant protein; contributing up to 18% of the world’s protein requirement, dietary fiber, and mineral nutrients such as iron, potassium, folic acid, and zinc (Duranti, 2006).

In this scope, protein malnutrition coupled with calorie deficiency is widespread in many developing countries. It is therefore pertinent that the legumes including pulses and beans are made important dietary foodstuff.  Unfortunately, the legumes are deficient  incertain  amino  acids  particularly  the sulphur containing amino  acids.  This makes them individually inferior compared to proteins of animal origin. The protein quality of legumes can be  improved by complementing with  that of  cereals.  This is basically why protein  quality  of  a  diet  is  a measure  of  its ability  to  promote  growth  in  animal, Akpapunam  (2005).

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Leguminous species range from the well- known crops such as cowpea (Vigniaunguiculata) and soybean (Glycine max) to the lesser known and underutilized wing beans (Psophocarpustetragonlibas). Their seeds are highly nutritious with high- protein content, as such; they are used as food for both humans and animals. In addition, cow-pea in particular is an important component of cropping systems in the tropics usually used as cover crops, green manure, and as natural fertilizers (Nwokolo, 1996). It is consumed in many forms such as the young leaves, green pods/seeds as vegetables, and dry seeds in various food preparations (Singh, Ehlers, Sharma, &Freire-Filho, 2002). In West Africa, cowpea seeds are boiled with condiments and eaten alone with stew or in combinations with cereals. In Nigeria, they are also used in preparing other food products such as fried cowpea cakes, bean soup, and a steamed popular delicacy called moi-moi.

It is common in home diets, restaurants and ceremonial occasions. Its consumption cuts across tribe and creed by virtue of its popularity among the few indigenous foods thatare now being projected at public eating/places (Okoli 2002).

Moi-moi is a traditional Nigerian bean dish obtained by steaming homogeneous slurries containing cowpea paste, small amounts of vegetable oil, pepper, and other ingredients. On steaming the slurry in pouches made from leaves, aluminum foil or polyethylene bags, it solidifies into an irreversible gel- pudding.Cowpea flour has been processed and used in many food preparations such as moi-moi, baby foods and baked products (Enwere and Uzombah, 1991; and Enwere, 1998). Of the legumes consumed in Nigeria, cowpea appears to be the most popular because they can be easily utilized in many food preparations.

The microbiological quality of this food item sold in university campuses in Nigeria as well as Imo State is determined by microbiological examinations inorder to ensure that they meet the required microbiological standards specified by FAO (1990). Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the chemical and microbial quality of moi-moiproducts sold in Imo State University (IMSU), Owerri towards improving the nutritional quality and diversifying the food uses of legumes.

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1.2 Statement of Problem

Moimoi is a protein rich food that is staple in Nigeria. It is commonly eaten withmoi-moi as a meal hence the high demand for it in canteens (Harold, 2003).Due to socio-economic changes characterized by increased mobility, resulting in more locally prepared foods taken outside the home, food vendors services are on the increase and responsibility for the food safety have been transferred from individuals/families to the food vendors.These food vendors rarely enforce good manufacturing practices which are linked with gastrointestinal diseases such as diarrhea and typhoid fever(Cho et al., 2011).Bacteria such as EscherichiaColi, Lactobcillussp etc. can come in contact with the foods when they are prepared especially in unhygienic environments and contaminated cooking utensils (Shamsudden and Ameh 2008).

In Imo State University, Owerri, preparation of moi-moi in canteensfor students is very common. These food vendors enjoy huge patronage from different social classes. There is limited data on the chemical and microbial composition of moimoisold in Imo State University Canteens. This study will therefore evaluate the chemical and microbial composition of moi-moi sold in Imo State University canteens.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.3.1 General Objective of the Study

The general objective of the study was to determine the chemical and microbial composition of moi-moi sold at Imo State University canteens.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of the study include to;

1.4 Significance of the Study

  1. This research will play an important role in increasing public knowledge and understanding on the harmful micro-organisms and contaminants present in moi-moi.
  2. The study will also be beneficial to future researchers, as information obtained will be utilized as a baseline for future research.
  3. Information obtained will guide policy makers in formulating policies that will guide the production of foods in a safe manner.
  4. The information obtained will guide food industries in ensuring food is produced in a hygienic manner.

Pages:  67

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo                            

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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