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Motivational Strategies Of Secondary School Teachers And Effectiveness In Teaching And Learning Of Economics In Owerri Municipal Council Of Imo State




The study investigated the motivational strategies of secondary school teacher and effectiveness in teaching and learning economics in Owerri Municipal Council. Four research questions guided this study. The descriptive survey research design was adopted in the conduct of the study. The study area was secondary schools in Owerri Municipal  Council of Imo State. The population of the study consists of 1796 students in selected 13 senior secondary schools in Owerri, Imo State. The instruments used for the study was a questionnaire, titled “Motivational Strategies of Secondary School Teacher and Effectiveness in Teaching and Learning of Economics (MSSTELES)”. The questionnaire was subjected to face and content validity. The findings revealed that in research questions one, in-service training given to students determines their learning of economics in secondary s chools in Owerri Municipal Council. Research question two showed reward systems given to students in learning of economics in secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council, research question three shows how adequate the teaching resources are provided for teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council and research question four showed the motivational strategies adopted by the teachers for effective learning. The study recommended among others that Ministry of Education should make a policy to provide all public schools in the area with necessary facilities to facilitate effective teaching and learning in schools.



This chapter discusses the method that will be adopted in carrying out the study under the following sub-headings: Background to the study, statement of the problem, scope of the study, purpose of the study, significance of the study and research questions

Background to the Study

Motivation is an` essential ingredient in the achievement of a stated goal, in the education sector, motivation of facilitators/teachers have become a prerequisite in order to burst the performance of facilitators/teachers in educating the learners.

Motivation can be described as a process by which an individual’s internal energies are directed towards various goals and objectives in his environment. According to Omebe (2015), motivation can be defined as those conditions such as praises, rewards, promotion, among others that arouse the interest of facilitators in performing their duties diligently. On the same vein, Onyeachu (2010) defined motivation as anything that encourages an individual to perform his or her duty in an expected manner. This corroborates the view of Ofoegbu (2011) who defined motivation as force that would reduce tension, stress, worries and frustration arising from a problematic situation in a person’s life. From these definitions, it follows that motivation are those things that compel persons (facilitators) to do their work with happiness in the area of teaching and learning.

The extent motivational practices are made available by principals head of department may negatively or positively influence the facilitators’ attitude towards their duties. There are two types of motivation, Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation. It’s important to understand that we are not all the same; thus effectively motivating your employees requires that you gain an understanding of the different types of motivation. Such an understanding will enable you to better categorize your team members and apply the appropriate type of motivation. One will find each member different and each member’s motivational needs will be varied as well. Intrinsic motivation means that the individual’s motivational stimuli are coming from within. The individual has the desire to perform a specific task, because its results are in accordance with his belief system or fulfills a desire and therefore importance is attached to it. Extrinsic motivation means that the individual’s motivational stimuli are coming from outside. In other words, the desires to perform a task by the facilitator are controlled by an outside source (Hyun, 2018). Different strategies can be used to implement motivation on facilitators, which ever strategy is used, motivation usually have its effect.

Strategy is important because the resources available to achieve these goals are usually limited. Strategy generally involves setting goals, determining actions to achieve the goals, and mobilizing resources to execute the actions. A strategy describes how the ends (goals) will be achieved by the means (resources). Strategy can be intended or can emerge as a pattern of activity as the organization adapts to its environment or competes. It involves activities such as strategic planning and strategic thinking. Anderman, (2010) defines strategy as art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship” is a high level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty. In the sense of the “art of the general,” which included several subsets of skills including tactics, siege craft, logistics etc., the term came into use in the 6th century C.E. in East Roman terminology, and was translated into Western vernacular languages only in the 18th century. From then until the 20th century, the word “strategy” came to denote “a comprehensive way to try to pursue political ends, including the threat or actual use of force, in a dialectic of wills” in a military conflict, in which both adversaries interact. Motivational strategies in this context involve various ways or means through which facilitators are empowered to carry out their facilitation task effectively for maximum output and realization of the institutional goals.

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Motivational strategies used for facilitators depend on worth and whether such motivational strategies are provided for the facilitators as encouragement in literacy centers. Facilitators are those who help a group to have an effective dialogue without taking any side of the argument, especially in order to reach a consensus. Adult literacy education facilitators are those who are engaged in helping adults to learn in literacy centres (Otega, 2011). A motivational facilitator is one who opens the doors to learning rather than simply providing information to employees in a rote format. The trend in motivational facilitators as teachers operates on the premise that employees learn better when they are guided and allowed to discover knowledge on their own rather than constantly being spoon fed facts and information. Having a balance of traditional teaching as well as motivational facilitators at all levels of the programme gives employees a well-rounded educational experience. Every employee in an organization needs to be motivated in order to perform better. So it is with facilitators in literacy programme.

A facilitator here refers to anybody who assists or helps an adult learner to acquire knowledge or study. The facilitation of adult learning means assisting the adults to make sense of and act upon the personal, social, occupational and political environment in which they live. It is an important, exhilarating and profound activity both for the facilitators and for the learners (Brookfield, 2016). For the purpose of this study some of the motivational strategies for facilitators may include; conducive environment, in-service training, rewards and incentive and teaching resources. Therefore, motivation hinges on how satisfied or dissatisfied facilitators are with their job dispositions.

Reward and incentive is a motivating influence that is designed to drive behaviour and facilitators to be produce quality work. Employers use several types of incentives to increase production numbers. Employee incentives come in a variety of forms including paid time off, bonuses, cash and travel perks. Incentives drive employee motivation because they offer workers more to strive for than a regular pay check (FRN, 2014).

Training is the process by which knowledge and skills are imparted in individuals for purpose of effectively addressing the challenges of life, Ramsley (2005). In the view of Kizito (2004), training is perceived as the process that results in effective preparation of individuals capable of performing tasks competently. Offering in- service Training to facilitators is crucial in determining the extent to which an institution intends to achieve its academic goals, since this is motivational for purposes of realizing increased job performance. Institutions therefore need to embrace regular training so that defined behaviour patterns expected in the accomplishment of specialized task can be acquired, (Ndege, 2004). Training should be considered in a broad perspective that covers the training for initial job placement in addition to continuous in- service that is helpful in dealing with emerging issues in the field of education.

Conducive environment offers an atmosphere upon work done .The environmental conditions in which the learning takes place are extremely significant. Underprivileged conditions within the environment disheartens the facilitator and reduces the effectiveness of job performance. Teaching resources includes the availability of working tools and equipments, presence of enough working space needed for accomplishment of various tasks, leadership styles that give freedom of expression of personal desires, innovation and creativity, a feeling of recognition and social work availability of different forms of motivators, Olango (2011). More often, some supervisors demands a lot of effort from subordinates in the execution of task with little regard to provide necessary tools and resources required for effective discharge of duties.

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There has been a substantial theoretical and practical shift of emphasis, mostly in mainstream education, towards acknowledging that facilitators are among the principal components of any educational programme. In the past ten years, a burgeoning research base has increasingly shown that facilitators are among the most important players influencing learner’s outcomes, holding the key to sealing the gaps in learners‟ outcomes (Ferguson, 1991, 1998; Goldhaber, 2002; Sanders, 1998, 2000). Sanders (1998), for example, states that the “single largest factor affecting academic growth of population of learners is differences in effectiveness of individual classroom instructors (p. 27). Wright, Horn, and Sanders (1997) also believe “more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of instructors than by any other single factor” (p. 63). Along the same lines, Alexander (2005) argues that “few educators, economists, or politicians argued with the contention that all things being equal, highly qualified instructors produce greater learner’s outcomes than comparatively less qualified instructors” (p. 2).

Adult basic literacy is necessary in Nigeria to fight or eradicate illiteracy. This is particularly because Nigeria’s illiteracy rate is high (Olagunju, 2009). Olagunju (2009) reiterated that dealing with Nigeria’s burgeoning problem of illiteracy is much more a compulsion than a choice when he stated that “No nation on earth with even 20 per cent illiteracy level can become one of the top 20 economies in the world. But in the case of Nigeria, about 50 per cent are”. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (2006) Education for All Global Monitoring Report puts Nigeria’s total adult literacy rate for adults aged 15 years and above as 48.7%. The rate for males was 59.4% while that of females was 38.4%. Meanwhile, between 2000-2004 the total literacy rate was put by UNESCO (2006) at 66.8% with that of males being 74.4% while that of females was 59.4%. Olagunju (2009) and Fasokun (2009) agreed that whatever the source of data used, Nigeria’s literacy rate is poor and stands to be a major obstacle against the realization of the development goals of the nation, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Vision 2020 project.

In recent time, there are growing agitations and calls on developing countries to focus their attention on economics education in order for them to turn around the economic status of their various Countries. It is against this background that the various Nigerian governments have been placing emphasis on the    economic education in the educational system. This issue led to the formulation of the new national policy on education. (NPE, 2006) which seems to place high emphasis on economics as a subject. Under the new policy economics is to be taught right from secondary school. The aim here is to inculcate into the secondary school student the basic necessity for the learning of economics at the higher levels of education. According to the National Policy on Education (NPE, 2006) the aim is to provide the students with “a sound basis for economical and reflective thinking” (FEM, 1981 : 146). In essence, the secondary school is considered as the foundation upon which the future of economy in Nigeria is based. It is at this level that the student is introduced into the field of social science to explore it.

Secondary school students are known to be curious and it is at this stage that curiosity can be tapped to advantage to develop the right economic attitudes in the students. In recent times also there have been complains by examiners teachers and even parents about poor student’s performance in economic more especially at the secondary level. There are also cries of students lack of interest in social sciences. This study intends to examine whether these trends are due to shaky foundations laid right from the secondary school. In other words are the secondary students given the adequate orientation to develop interest and motivation in learning economics?. The emphasis being laid on economics by successive Nigerian governments. Studies such as this could help in revealing the fundamental faults if any, associated with the teaching of economics and the prospects for improvement. It is in recognition of the crucial role that secondary school plays in the development of economics that the study intends to look into motivational strategies of secondary School teacher and effectiveness in teaching and learning of economics in Owerri municipal council.

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Statement of  the Problem

The study will focus its attention on the motivational strategies of secondary School teacher and effectiveness in teaching and learning of economics, challenges being encountered by both students and teachers in the teaching and learning of economics at the secondary school.

The practical problems facing the teaching of economics are as follows: Obsolete Textbooks with the exception of a few, the economics textbooks written in Nigeria are badly written, sketchy and lack the in-depth content. They are largely descriptive. They are poorly illustrated and contain lots of inaccuracies and they are mostly produced in a hurry. The issue of teacher commitment and effectiveness is now a perennial one in educational discourse. The teachers today occupy a paramount position in the teaching learning situation. It is agreed that no education can rise above the quality of its teacher. Teachers need to be committed and dedicated to teaching profession. Teaching requires a cultivated ability. To be done exceptionally well, it also requires a special talent and a sense of vocation. The kind of attitude a child has affected his school work and learning in general because, if he has a positive attitude about the teacher, motivated by the teachers and the subject, success is inevitable. It is observed that student’s attitudes to economics determines the degree to which they pass economics and negative attitude towards the subject and teachers will definitely have adverse effect on their academic achievement in the subject.

Scope of the Study

This research is designed to cover both practical and theoretical Motivational strategies for effective teaching 

Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study is to determine the Motivational strategies of secondary school teacher and Effectiveness in teaching and learning of Economics in Owerri Municipal Council, Imo State

Specifically, the study determined:

  1. In-service training given to students in learning economics in secondary schools in Owerri.
  2. Appropriate reward system as a strategy for students in learning economics in secondary schools in Owerri?
  3. Teaching resources provided for student’s as a strategy in learning economics in secondary schools in Owerri?
  4. To determine the motivational strategies adopted by the teacher for effective learning

Significance of the Study

The Findings and recommendations of this study if properly implemented would be of paramount benefit to government administrators and planners, facilitator and students.

They will be aware of the salient sources of Motivational strategies for facilitators in Learning programmes in Owerri , Imo State especially as it relates to administration of Governments and planning of every government’s agenda. In other words, the study would also reveal such administrative variable (strategies) that can motivate teachers in teaching programmes such as disciplinary measure/provision of necessary provision of qualified enabling environment in which Teachers and learners can thrive. These can aid the government agenda development Agencies in creating a level playing ground suitable to accommodating adult learners in literacy programmes.

The findings of this work will benefit facilitators, teaching the programme, to enable them put in their best in teaching the students if they are properly motivated. This is because a motivated employee performs better than the non motivated ones.

The findings of the study will also be beneficial to students. This is because secondary school student that desires to participate in learning programmes, thereby giving them up to date information and for further research. This study will also help them to discover the right motivation to embark on the teaching programme.

 Research Questions

The following research question will be used to guide the study.

  1. What are the in-service training given to students in learning economics in secondary schools in Owerri?
  2. What are the appropriate reward systems given to students in learning economics in secondary schools in Owerri?
  3. How adequate are the teaching resources provided for teaching in learning economics in secondary schools in Owerri?
  4. What are the motivational strategies adopted by the teacher for effective learning?

    Pages:  56

    Category: Project

    Format:  Word & PDF         

    Chapters: 1-5                                                      

    Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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