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Strategies For Improving Teaching And Learning In Economics In Secondary Schools In Owerri Municipal Council Of Imo State




The purpose of this research is to find out The Strategies For Improving Teaching and Learning Effectiveness in Economics in Secondary Schools in Owerri Municipal Council of Imo State.

The rating scale is made up of twenty (20) items and were constructed and administered to the selected Senior Secondary School teachers and 9 Principals. A descriptive survey design was adopted using a sample of two hundred and ninety one (291) teachers and nine(9) principals making a total of three hundred (300) respondents in secondary schools in owerri Municipal Local government council of IMO state. The instrument used for data collection was the researchers administered rating scale. Validation of the instrument was done by one specialist from Measurement and Evaluation and Two specialist from Education Economics. The Pearson moment correlation coefficient was used to test the reliability of the instrument after test-retest results was collected. The constructed rating scale was administered to elicit answers to the research questions.  The mean score was used to analyze the data collected.  Among the findings, are numerous teaching methods that could be used in teaching Economics,  some of the teaching methods includes: Discussion Method, Project Method, Discovery Method,  Field Trip Methods and Lecture Method.  The researcher therefore recommended that to ensure quality and professional teaching, regular workshops, seminars and conferences should be organized by government in collaboration with professionals and regulatory bodies in serving teachers on contemporary issues in teaching Economics. This will expose them to Up- to date knowledge in content,  teaching methodology,  use of instructional materials,  and evaluation of the Economics curriculum.



In this chapter, the researcher discusses the Background of the study, statement of the Problem, Scope of the study, purpose of the study, Significance to the study and Research Questions that guides the study.


Education has been considered to be the cornerstone for development. It is an instrument for upward mobility in the society. Education provides an enabling avenue for the harnessing of an individuals potentials, making the individual fit for the society (Ikemereh, 2021).

According to FRN (2013), Education forms the basis For literacy, skills acquisition ability, teaching achievement and ability to harness human and material resources towards the achievement of societal goals. In Nigeria today, there is high demand for education because of these effective contributions in the overall development.

Economics is a very important course of study, Achala(2014), states that Economics is associated with scarcity and choice. He defines Economics as social science which studies humans behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means, which have alternative uses.  This means that economics a a science which helps man to understand manage his scarce resources, in order to meet his numerous needs. Economics education in Secondary school is expected to equip the students with fundamental area of intellectual training, vocational skills, cultures, values, citizenship, training tools for the analysis of situation and natural interest for developments.

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The strategies for improving teaching and learning in Economics on Secondary Schools is bent on the effectiveness of the teaching techniques put in use by the teacher,  this determines how best the student learns.  There is no particular teaching – learning approach that is exclusively encompassing or the more excellent.  Two or more teaching – learning approaches could be used by teachers to have more meaningful learning outcomes.  However, Idris and Rajuddin(2012) observed that, it is a common practice in Nigeria where a teacher stands before the board and delivers lesson through verbal instruction while the students serve as passive listeners and take note from the board.

However, Kelly(2014) states that this practice can be of great benefit in that,  students who are auditory learners find that lecturers appeal to their learning style. Also, in a lecture environment, instructors have a greater control over what is been taught in the  classroom because they ate the sole source of information.

Lecture Method seems to promote rote learning since students are simply passive listeners in the process.  Accordingly, Olatoye and Adekoya(2010) noted that some methods of conveying knowledge like conventional approaches such as lecture and recitation tend to be relatively ineffective on the student’s ability to master and retain important concepts, and on enhancing critical thinking and collaborative problem solving among students.  No wonder, the poor achievement of secondary schools students and the seeming failure of secondary education towards producing sound, creative, functional and effective secondary school graduates.

Academic Performance is the outcome of Education or the event to which an institution is able to achieve the educational goals. These entail how the students and teachers are able to fulfill the purpose for which educational goals and objectives are set.  Academic performance is how well or bad, someone does during his or her school and all the activities that go with it. Bossarti, Roumenas, Versxchuevent (2011) stated that academic performance is commonly measured by examination or contains assessment.

Since Academic performance is measured through examination like WAEC, NECO and JAMB, it is necessary to know why the students performed poorly in an examination.  One of the secret is the type of teaching strategy and instructional materials their teachers used in carrying out the instructional objectives.  Trying to know the type of instructional material used in teaching and learning of Economics in both rural or urban school in the study area would help to improve the academic performance of the students, because it will help to find out whether the Economics students are using instructional materials or not.  If they are not using instructional materials, they will be encouraged to use it and suitable and appropriate instructional materials will be selected for them to enhance high academic performance in Economics.

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Teaching and Learning of Economics have been seriously frustrated in recent times (Udekaigbo, Onionwu and Mbionwu, 2014).This attributed to the fact that it is difficult to translate the ideas of some economics concepts and theories into visual practical realities. Teachers are being accused of not teaching with the appropriate strategies Thao will enable effective learning to take place, there has also been the issue of inadequate use of instructional materials which led to poor academic performances of students especially in external examinations.

On this, most students rely so much on examination malpractice to succeed in e tweet examinations, like West African Examination Council (WAEC), National Examination Council(NECO), National Business and Technical Examination Board(NABTEB) and University Tertiary and Matriculation Examination(UTME). The problem is compounded by the usage of unsuitable teaching strategies such as out-dated textbooks, parroting in place of improvisation or even inadequate use of information and communication technology in Teaching.

The inadequate supply of instructional materials by government together with the poor supervision of teachers compliance with effective teaching strategies and instruction materials usage especially during teaching and learning encounter has led to poor academic performance among economics students of Government Secondary Schools of owerri Municipal Council of Imo State.

Furthermore,  teachers who are acquainted with the skill on how to use innovative teaching strategies and end up making the lesson more more abstract than reality, and which makes the class boring. For example, there are teachers in the secondary schools who had Bachelor of Science(B. SC) at the expense of Bachelor of Education(B. Ed),  and they might not have the required relevant skills on how to appropriately use effective strategies in teaching aṅd learning process even at the students jeopardy.

Hence, there is need to identify the type of teaching strategies used in teaching and learning of Economics in order to address the problems of poor academic performance of economic ls students and inappropriate use of teaching strategies in teaching and learning of Economics in government secondary schools in owerri Municipal Council Of Imo State.


This study will cover public secondary schools Owerri Municipal local government council of IMO state. It centrally investigates the strategies for improving teaching and learning in Economics in Secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council of Imo State.

It focuses on the different teaching methods, use of instructional materials, and the use of ICT in teaching Economics.


The main purpose of the study is to examine the strategies for improving teaching and learning in Economics in Secondary schools in owerri Municipal local government council of IMO state.

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Specifically,  the study sought to:

  1. Ascertain the various teaching methods in teaching Economics.
  2. The adequacy of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Economics
  3. Determine the average of senior secondary school students in Economics on varies of teaching methods
  4. Ascertain the use of ICT in teaching of Economics


It is expected that the findings in this study, will be beneficial to students, teachers, school administrators, secondary education management, government, the society as well as the future researchers in the following ways:

To the teachers, the study will help to educate them on the various strategies they can use to improve teaching and learning in Economics.  The findings of this study will help Economics teachers to identify their area of lack in the aspect of teaching which could be used to improve students understanding in schools.

This study would provide principals and other school heads useful information on the effective strategies needed for improving of teaching and learning.  It will help principals to regularly supervise the different strategies used by Economics teachers in teaching and also find out how it affects their academic performance.  It is believed that the findings and recommendations from this study will guide school administrators by incorporating some of the recommended strategies as a policy base.

Policy and decision makers such as ministry of Education and post primary school service commission and secondary Education Management Board(SEMB) will benefit from the findings of this study. Findings will provide them with information on the new effective strategies for teaching and learning.  They may be on the basis of the recommendation of the study, organize in-service workshop on effective teaching strategies for teachers so as to improve the academic performance of Economics students.

The Findings of this study will be relevant in providing some strategies for planners, administrators, policy and decision makers with respect to education in creating a healthier and productive students learning environment.

Lastly,  it would be beneficial to the government and entire school system as principals may be exposed to relevant knowledge on the strategies for effective teaching and learning and its effect on academic performance of students.


The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What are the various teaching methods,  teachers employ in Teaching Economics?
  2. How adequate are instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Economics?
  3. What are the average academic performance of senior secondary students in Economics in the use of other varies of teaching methods?
  4. To what extent is ICT being used in teaching and learning of Economics?

    Pages:  80

    Category: Project

    Format:  Word & PDF               

    Chapters: 1-5                                          

    Source: Imsuinfo

    Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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