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Influence Of Indiscriminate Waste Disposal On Pupils’ Health In Onitsha Metropolis

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ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate influence of indiscriminate waste disposal on pupils’ health in Onitsha Metropolis. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprised of the one million, three hundred and forty-eight thousand (1,348,000) residents in Onitsha Metropolis while two hundred and fifty-eight (258) residents were drawn through stratified random sampling technique to serve as sample selected at random to represent the entire population. Three research questions were raised to guide the study. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire which was developed by the researcher. Two hundred and fifty-eight (258) copies of the questionnaires were administered to the selected respondents and analyzed using mean statistics. The study revealed that there are methods of waste disposal, causes of indiscriminate waste disposal and health implication of indiscriminate waste disposal in Onitsha Metropolis. Based on the findings, the study recommended that residence should be enlightened on the health implication of indiscriminate waste disposal, government should set up waste management team that will monitor how waste is been disposed, government should as a matter of necessity establish dump sites in every community to ensure that waste is properly disposed.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

One of the ways we can get connected to nature is through a clean and healthy environment. A clean and healthy environment attracts humans as it helps to improve health and aesthetics. It refreshes and even generates income through tourism. But an environment if continuously polluted and abused with waste indiscriminately, encourages spread of diseases, destabilizes the ecosystem and repels people (Jimoh, 2015).

Historically, before now the amount of wastes generated by human population was insignificant mainly due to the low population densities, coupled with the fact that there was very little exploitation of natural resources (Austin, 2010). Common wastes produced during the early ages were mainly ashes and biodegradable wastes. Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms (Dickson, 2013). There are also non-biodegradable wastes. These are wastes that cannot be broken down by other living organisms and are released back into the ground locally, with minimal environmental impact (Austin, 2010).

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With the advent of industrial revolution, waste management became a critical issue. This was due to the increase in population and the massive migration of people to industrial towns and cities from rural areas during the 18th century (Robert, 2010).

The generation and disposal of waste is an intrinsic part of any developing or industrial society. Waste, both from domestic and commercial sources has grown significantly in Nigeria over the past decades. Every time a householder shops at the Store and open market, he contributes to the generation of waste. It is possible to quote figures which show that the production of waste amounts to millions of tons. The percentage of Nigerian’s population living in cities and urban areas has more than doubled in the last 15 years (Jimoh, 2015). The cities and urban areas experience continuous growth which contributes to enormous in generation of solid and liquid waste.

The management of waste is a matter of national and international concern. Studies have shown that the volume of waste does not actually constitute the problem but the ability or inability of governments, individuals and waste disposal firms to cope with the task of managing waste and the environment (Austin, 2010). There is no doubt that a dirty environment affects the standard of living, aesthetic sensibilities, health of the people and thus the quality of their lives. Austin further opined that improper disposal of waste can constitute hazards to the society through the pollution of air, land and especially water.

Waste management especially in urban areas of Nigeria is still very problematic. Governments, non-governmental organizations and private sectors have been involved in waste management through various means (Johnson, 2013). Waste management in urban areas has moved from solely public management to private management and presently to public -private participation. The problems associated with waste management are made more complex by the presence of non-degradable refuse (such as polythene materials) (Johnson, 2013).

Indiscriminate disposal and dumping of waste has become a common practice in Nigerian cities. Most of the waste dumps are located close to residential areas, markets, farms, roadsides, and creeks. The composition of waste dumps varies widely with many human activities located close to dump sites. Familiar examples include domestic and industrial wastes. Industrial wastes are generated from industrial activities such as chemicals, pesticides, paints, grease, inorganic materials, oil sludge, and so on. Domestic wastes are those generated from commercial establishments and household activities.

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In the Anambra, Delta and the nation at large, environmental degradation as a result of increased rate of indiscriminate waste disposal and its detrimental consequences to the environment and human health is a great concern that call for government and private organization’s immediate attention especially in this prevalent health challenges in some part of the countries as a result of diseases which ranges from communicable to non-communicable diseases such as Lassa fever, a rat borne disease and other diseases resulting from         environmental          pollution.
Unregulated growth of urban areas and inadequate infrastructural facilities for collection, transporting, treating and disposal of waste have all contributed to increase in pollution and ecological degradation in the region (Dickson, 2013). He further maintained that indiscriminate waste disposal is known to block water drainages thereby leading to flooding a situation that can cause damages to house and property, ill health and even death. Waste flushed to the stream affect the color, odour and the general water quality of the stream where most of the people get their water from and thereby exposing them to health hazard such as water borne diseases and       others (Sunday,2015).
The problem of indiscriminate domestic waste disposal in Onitsha South is getting to a threatening level. Abdullahi (2014) opined that the domestic waste disposal problems in Onitsha South is typified by overflowing dustbins, mountains of open refuse dumps at virtually every street corners (especially where burning also occurs) and the existence of improperly operated open landfill which are often rodent infested, with potentials for surface and ground water pollution.

Dumping of waste into the rivers, streams, ponds, gutters/drainages, on the streets in the market places is wrong and unlawful. The waste you indiscriminately disposed can come back to haunt you in form of flooding, sicknesses and diseases.

 Statement of the Problem

There are lots of implications when wastes are not properly handled and indiscriminately disposed of. The effects are negative and could be detrimental. It poses risk to our Environment, Health, Social and psychological life, Infrastructure and Aesthetic. When wastes disposed of indiscriminately are not collected, it gives rise to unsanitary condition which poses environmental and health hazard risk. Waste disposed of indiscriminately can also result to water pollution, land pollution, drainage blockage, flooding and infrastructural degradation with its attendant negative effects. It is as a result of this backdrop that the researcher is motivated to examine the influence of indiscriminate waste disposal on pupils’ health in Onitsha Metropolis.

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Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of indiscriminate waste disposal on pupils’ health in Onitsha Metropolis. Specifically, the study seeks to determine:

  1. The methods of waste disposal in primary schools in Onitsha Metropolis.
  2. The causes of indiscriminate waste disposal in primary schools in Onitsha Metropolis.
  3. The health implication of indiscriminate waste disposal in primary schools in Onitsha Metropolis.

Research Questions

The following questions were raised to guide the researcher in carrying out the study:

  1. What are the methods of waste disposal in primary schools in Onitsha Metropolis?
  2. What are the causes of indiscriminate waste disposal in primary schools in Onitsha Metropolis?
  3. What ate the health implication of indiscriminate waste disposal in primary schools in primary schools in Onitsha Metropolis?

Significance of the Study

This study would benefit the indigenes of Onitsha Metropolis, waste management agencies, government and the field of biology education. The study would help the indigenes to know the methods of waste disposal and the health effect of indiscriminate waste disposal. The recommendations of the study would help the indigenes to know the proper way of disposing waste.

The study would be of help to the waste management agencies in the local government to put more effort in insuring that they go round the local government to collect refuge and dispose it appropriately to avoid the indiscriminate.

Findings of the study would go a long way in helping the government to know the forms of waste disposal and the negative effect of indiscriminate waste disposal and work with the waste management agencies in the local government to ensure constant collection and disposal of waste. Finally, the study would add to the existing literature in the field of biology education and also serve as a reference material for scholars and researcher who may wish to carry out a related study.

Scope of and Delimitation of the Study

This study focuses on influence of indiscriminate waste disposal on pupils’ health in Onitsha Metropolis. With particular emphasis on methods of waste disposal, causes of indiscriminate waste disposal and the health implications of indiscriminate waste disposal.


Pages:  55

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo                                     

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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