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Green Tourism And Its Impact On Tourism Development




 This study looks at issues surrounding sustainable green tourism as a tool for local tourism development in Nigeria, using the case study of Imo State Resort Towns. Illustrated by primary data from field interviews and surveys in Imo State, backed by secondary data, it finds that due to the nature of the Nigerian tourism industry (external control and management of tourism establishments, limited local involvement and high leakage rates), the industry has not played an effective role in local socio-economic development. Ways forward are suggested.



1.1     Background of Study

Green tourism plays important role in economic development at any community, national, regional and global levels by using natural resources and environments as key physical inputs. In making use of the environment and natural resources, the negative impacts have to be minimized to assure sustainable use, as well as generate enough tourism revenue to reinvest a certain portion of funds. The reinvestment should aim at enhancing the quality of the resources and build the management capacity at various levels. There is a complex relationship between tourism and the environment, such that tourism has inevitable and important environmental impacts, including: resource use, consumption, waste, pollution and effects from tourism-related transport. At the same time, beaches, mountains, rivers, forests and diverse flora and fauna make the environment a basic resource that the tourism industry needs in order to thrive and grow. While the viability of tourism could be threatened by negative environmental impacts, tourism could also contribute significantly to environmental protection.

Sustainable Development has become an accepted concept for policy development. International Agencies and Organizations like the World Tourism and Travel Council (WWTC) and the International Federation of Tour Operators (IFTO) have attempted to highlight tourism- environment issues. In 1993, the World Tourism Organisation (WTO) published a Guide for sustainable development for local planners. UNEP, in collaboration with the International Hotels Environment Initiative has produced guidelines to improve the environmental performance of hotel units (The Green Hotelier, Going Green Makes Sense, Environmental Management for Hotels). The Convention for Biodiversity and Agenda 21 support incentives towards sustainable tourism development.

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The European Commission has published the Green Paper on the Role of the Union in the field of Tourism. During 1995 and 1996 it established ECONETT, a network for tourism and environment. Significant initiatives for sustainable tourism were also undertaken by the Council of Europe. Because of Treaty obligations, the EU’s tourism sector cooperation with governments or private business needed to include a consideration of the environmental effects of each planned action. Within this context the private sector also undertook initiatives towards reducing impacts of tourism on the environment.

Travel over long distances requires a large amount of time and/or energy. Generally this involves burning fossil fuels, a largely unsustainable practice and one that contributes to climate change, via CO2 emissions. Mass transport is the most climate friendly method of travel, and generally the rule is “the bigger the better” compared to cars, buses are relatively more sustainable, and trains and ships are even more so. Human energy and renewable energy are the most efficient, and hence, sustainable. Travel by bicycle, solar powered car, or sailing boat produces no carbon emissions (although the embodied energy in these vehicles generally comes at the expense of carbon emission).

Green Tourism is a rapidly growing phenomenon and has become one of the largest industries in the world. The impact of tourism is extremely varied. On one hand, it plays an important and certainly positive role in the socio-economic and political development in destination countries by, for instance, offering new employment opportunities. Also, in certain instances, it may contribute to a broader cultural understanding by creating awareness, respecting the diversity of cultures and ways of life. On the other hand, as a tool to create jobs, it has not fulfilled its expectations. At the same time, complaints from tourist destinations concerning massive negative impacts upon environment, culture and residents‟ ways of life have given rise to a demand for a more sustainable development in tourism. Different parties will have to be involved in the process of developing sustainable tourism(UNCSD NGO,1999).

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1.2     Statement of Problem

The concept of Green sustainable tourism strives to harmonise and reconcile issues of intergenerational equity, and the goals of economic growth, environmental protection and social justice. It recognises the need for fairness between local individuals and groups, and between hosts and guests (Mbaiwa, 2005). If the concept of sustainable tourism is transformed into action, it is expected to con-tribute to the sustainability of the environment, social and cultural resources and overall socio-economic development. The increasing popularity of the concept derives from the widely held view that there is a need to alter current forms of consumption that perceive existing resources as being infinite.

A lot of attention has been paid to the economic and ecological aspects of sustainable development, especially at the national level (Roe & Khanya, 2001; Scheyvens, 2002), but little has been given to the analysis of the implications of sustainable tourism on specific local communities and on the industry’s impact on the quality of life and on socio-ecological aspects of communities that are directly affected by the tourism industry, particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria.

1.3     Objective of the Study

This research work explored Green tourism and its contribution to tourism development of Nigeria

  1. To improve the green tourist centers and its long term survival by short-term considerations.
  2. To examine the relationship between Green tourism and socio-economic development in the long term.
  3. To highlight, Green tourism and give recognition to it as a positive activity with a potential benefit to the local community.

1.4     Research Question

The research work is guided with same research question, which will be administered and distributed among the researchers area of study. The questions were carefully structured to gather information for better understanding of the research work.

  1. What is the effect of improving the sustainability of Green tourist centers and its long term survival by short-term considerations?
  2. What is the relationship between green tourism and socio-economic development in the long term?
  3. To what extent has Green tourism been given recognition as a positive activity with a potential benefit to the local community?
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1.5     Research Hypothesis

The researcher formed some of the hypothesis which will be tested to support this study. The hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significance using the chi-square method and percentage analysis.

The research hypothesis are as follows.

Hypothesis 1: There is a significance between Green  tourism and management to socioeconomic tourism development.

Hypothesis 2: Long term survival of tourism is significantly related to Green  tourism and management in Imo State.

1.6     Significance of the Study

This research work highlights on the importance of Green  tourism and management as a means of sustainable tourism development. It is believed that the findings of this research work should provide detailed information on the how to manage tourist centers for a sustainable development and long term survival. It is also expected that the study will benefit the hospitality industries and management.

The research will also have a significance difference to the researcher. This is because the study will expose the researcher to so many related areas in the course of carrying out his research. This will enhance the researcher’s experience, knowledge and understanding on tourism and management for a sustainable development.

1.7     Limitation of the Study

Due to time constrain, this research work should have covered a whole festive period of the celebration, but was shorten, also this research work is limited to the study of tourist sites and its surrounding in Oguta, Orlu and Owerri in Imo State of Nigeria. Also,

  • Little materials are also available because the work is relatively new.
  • Financial constrain poses another challenges.

    Pages:  32

    Category: Seminar

    Format:  Word & PDF               

    Chapters: 1-5                                          

    Source: Imsuinfo                                     

    Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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