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Factors Of Militating Against Effective Teaching Of Biology In Oshimili South Local Government Area Of Delta State




The study was to examine the factors of militating against effective teaching of biology in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. To achieve the essence, the study was divided into five chapters. Five research questions were raise and answered in the study, related literature were reviewed in the study. The study used a descriptive survey.  The population comprised of all the biology teachers teaching in the ten (10) public senior secondary schools which consist of twenty five (25) biology teacher in Asaba, Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. There was no sample because the population was a manageable one. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire which was validated by two lecturers from the school of science education and measurement and evaluation. The method of data analysis was mean statistics to answer the research questions. The findings revealed that, qualification of teacher, adequate remuneration, adequate material resources, adequate promotion, in-service training influence the teaching of biology. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that the parent-teacher association should try to employ qualified teacher, if government plays nonchalant attitude in employing teachers, In – service training should be given to teachers so that they will adopt the new innovation of instruction material. Teachers on their own should be committed and dedicated for their duty, the teachers should possess all the qualities for effective teaching and learning to take place and federal and state government should supply new and enough science equipment to all the schools contract group of the people to supervise it to ensure their effect utilization.



Background to the Study

The term science has to do with nature; it is derived from the latin word scientia which means knowledge. It is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanation and predictions about the universe. It can equally be defined as the field of study which tries to describe and understand the nature of the universe in whole or part. Science in its broadest scene refers to all human activities involving organized knowledge of natural phenomena. It also refers to a system of acquiring knowledge here system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomena.

According to hornby (2002) science is the knowledge about the structure and behavior of natural and physical world based on facts that can be proved. Science is the study of natural phenomena and is distinguished from other fields because it relies on the hypothetical, deductive and experimental approach. Webster’s New collegisted Dictionary defined science as the knowledge attained through study or practice, in order word it is a knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws, especially as obtained and tested through scientific method and concerned with the physical world. Ali(2000)perceives that science is concerned with regards to developing, acquiring and controlling knowledge, skills, capacity and attitude about natural factors of the environment.       Science according to Onah (2003) is the bedrock upon which any nation can be built. It is said to be a very important of man’s life so much that its role in societal development has been revealed by various civilizations world-wide. Science increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. No country can be globally recognized without talking about its scientific advancements. This can be seen in all aspects of life such as medicine, engineering, industries, education etc.

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Science education has been recognized world-wide as a pre-requisite in science and technological development. It is that education intended to make every individual scientifically literate enough to like in this age of science and technology, and to have those with the intellectual ability productive and functional members of the society, through training in science based professions or vocations, Hyacienth(2004). Science education encourages students to think and act as responsible scientist by providing opportunities for them to acquire knowledge and understanding of relevant concepts.

According to Hyacienth(2004),science education is field of study specifically concerned with two basic aims which are as follows

  1. The production of a scientifically interaction society.
  2. The development of potential scientific and technological manpower.

Maduabum, (1992)reveals that education through study of science produces economic benefits and contributes to a country’s future wealth by increasing the productive capacity of its people. Science is a great enterprise which technologically science therefore is receiving much emphasis in education because of its significant and relevance to life and society.

The term biology is derived from two Greek words “bios” and “logos” which mean life and study respectively. Biology therefore means the study of life or study of living things. According to Nwagbo, (2008) stated that as a science subject in school curriculum, Biology is designed to produce individuals some of whom major may riot, take biological studies in their professional pursuit. . It is therefore a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and taxonomy. It have several branches; including the two big branches of biology which are botany (the study of plants) and zoology (the study of animals), morphology (the study if external structure of living things) physiology (the study of how living things function), Ecology (the study of relationship between living things and their environments), Genetics (the study of how living things inherits characters from their parents) Cell biology (the study of cell structure and functions).

According to Okeke (2000). Students who did well in biology could have prospects of becoming: Doctors, Nurses, Pharmacists, Dentists, Biology teachers, Medical technologist, Food technologists, Genetic Engineers, Microbiologists, Biochemists, and other science subject.

Biology has its origin from Europe but today all the nations of the world accord priority attention to science and technology in development efforts. The reason for according such priority attention to science and technology being that it carries the promises of great economic improvement and equally serve as a gateway to national development in the age of fast developing technology, has become necessary for all countries of the world especially the developing ones to organize and improve the teaching of science throughout the school stage. It is through science that we get the fundamental bases to develop technology.

Biology often overlaps with other sciences, for example biochemistry with biology and chemistry, Astrobiology with biology and astronomy. Social science such as geography, philosophy, psychology and sociology can also interact with biology, for example in administration of biological resources, developmental biology etc. it is a vast subject containing many subdivisions topics which are five unifying principle that can be said to be fundamental of modern biology.

  1. Cells are the basic unit of life
  2. Living Organisms consumes and transforms energy
  3. Organisms regulate the internal environment to maintain a suitable and constant condition.
  4. Genes and the basic unit of heredity
  5. New species and inherited characters are the product of evolution.

Sub-discipline of biology are recognized on the basis of the scale at which organisms are studied and methods used to study them, Biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life, molecular biology studies the complex interactions systems of biological molecules; then cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, which is the cell, physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissue, organs, organ of facts and presentation of information about the natural world. The pace of the development of a given country is always determined by the type of education which operates in that country. What is needed in biology is students involvement in the exploration of important ideas of biology.

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Effective teaching of biology is a process by which a biology teacher adopt all the possible method used in teaching in the classroom to make sure that students understand biology and be able to respond positively during assessment or to produce a good result. Teachers’ effectiveness is exhibited in the teaching method, classroom managements, the material as well as the way students are being handled, a good teacher always bear in mind the individual differences of the students while presenting the lesson and frequently check the student’s understanding of his or her points to make sure that they are getting of understanding his lesson. This also includes the ability of the teacher to answer question asked by the students, having knowledge about his or her subject matter and ability to show students how to conduct appropriate research.

Effective teaching is crucial, in order for students to reach educational success in and outside classroom setting, therefore, there has been some factors militating against effective teaching of biology in Senior Secondary School in Oshimli South Local Government Area, which some of them are as follows:

Unqualified biology teacher: Qualification of biology teachers are the major factor that militate against effective teaching of biology because some biology teachers in some senior secondary school did not undergo enough training to enable them get skills, qualities and enough knowledge of the subject matter and how to impact the knowledge to the students.

Lack of in-service training in Senior Secondary School: For teaching to be effectives there is need for improved teacher preparation through adequate and regular assessment and internship for practicing biology teachers. Biology teachers should be encouraged and supported to participate in seminar, conferences, workshops with a view to improve their teaching skills and for them to have a broad knowledge of how students learn biology.

Inadequate supply of biology equipment: In some schools, many laboratories equipments like microscope, glass tube, Beaker, slide, Bones of vertebrates etc. charts of different animals development, systems, organs, etc, work book for practical and textbooks are not adequate for the students in learning of biology. Biology is a science subject which is all about practical and also when combined with other science subject one will be able to study courses like medicine, nursing, pharmacy etc in higher institution. Wood,(2009) is of the opinion that the obsolete and insufficient teaching of biology in Senior Secondary Schools. They stressed that the teacher may be competent enough and have all the qualities to impact the knowledge to the students but to the obsolete and insufficient availability of biological equipment the aim is defeated.

Lack of promotion: to enhance the quality of biology teaching teachers should be promoted annually so as to motivate them. (Bennel &Akyeangpong,2007) found out that teachers were facing motivation crisis and as a result, learners were not taught properly due to low job satisfaction and motivation level among the teachers

Poor remuneration of biology teachers: to improve the quality of biology teaching, biology teachers should be valued and recognized  by the community. The government should improve teachers’ salaries and allowance

In summary, ineffective of teaching of biology in Oshimili South Local Government Area could be due to the several reasons such as teachers qualification, supply of biology equipment, Lack of promotion, poor remuneration, lack of in-service training etc.

Statement of the Problem

Biology is one of the core science subjects, which is supposed to be the most interesting subject to students in senior secondary schools. The effective teaching of biology has been very important. But the rate at which students fails biology in result time’s shows that effective learning has not been attained by these students. Goodrum, Hackling&Rennie (2001) that quality science of which Biology is part of it, is supported by excellent facilities, equipment and curriculum resources including instructional technologies and with subject matter. Therefore, there is the need to answer certain questions to re-enforce their effectiveness in teaching.

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Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to find out the factors that militate against the effective teaching of Biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area. Specifically the study aims at finding out.

  1. The extent to which Senior Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area have qualified biology teachers.
  2. The extent to which Biology teachers are remunerated in Oshimili South Local Government Area.
  3. The extent to which Senior Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government have adequate supply of biology materials resources.
  4. The extent to which teachers engage in an in-service training for biology in Oshimili South Local Government Area.
  5. The extent to which teachers in Oshimili South Local Government Area are adequately promoted.

Research Questions

In the course of this work, specific research questions to be answered are:

  1. What is the qualification of teachers teaching biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area?
  2. Are biology teachers adequately remunerated in Senior Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area?
  3. Are there adequate material resources for teaching biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area?
  4. Do biology teachers embark on an in-service training in Senior Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area?
  5. Are the biology teachers in Senior Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area promptly promoted?

Significant of the Study

The findings of the study will be of benefits to the biology teachers, the result of this research will enable teachers to improve in teaching preparation and use different teaching methods in teaching biology.

The result of this study will enable Educational Supervisors (Government Officials)  to check the activities of schools and ensures that qualified teachers are used, also provide resources in schools for effective teaching of biology and try to promote teachers when due including organization of in-service training for the biology teachers.

To the curriculum planners and administration to design curriculum that will encourage and emphasize technology driven education at the 22nd century in biology education course contents which  will improve students skills and competencies for employability and self sustainability.

Scope of Study                 

The scope of the study is delimited to “The Factors Militating Against Effective Teaching of Biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area”.

Operational Definition of Term

Factors: Are one of the element contributing to a particular result or situation.

Militate against: This is a process of making something less likely to happen or succeed.

Teaching: this means to impart knowledge to or to instruct someone as to do something.

Effective teaching: is a process by which a teacher adopt all the possible skills or method used in teaching in the classroom to make sure that students understand the lesson and be able to respond positively during evaluation and produce a good result.

Biology: Biology is a science subject taught in senior secondary school.

Senior Secondary School: This is a period of study from senior secondary school one to senior secondary school three.

Pages:  54

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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