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Effect Of Availability And Utilization Of Instructional Material In The Academic Performance Of Integrated Science Students In Junior Secondary Schools In Ika South Local Government Area Of Delta State

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Abstract

This study set out to examine the effect of availability and utilization of instructional material in the academic performance of integrated science students in junior secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State. The target population of the study consists of all the students and teachers in integrated science in junior secondary schools class ranging from jss1 in Ika South Local Government Area. The study was carried out in seven (7) secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State. The researcher sampled 100 students and 10 teachers from the seven selected schools totaling one hundred and ten (110) respondents from the selected secondary schools. This study was based on result scores of questionnaire. The result of the questionnaire was collected and analyzed using mean and standard deviation table of analysis. The result gave indication that instructional materials in secondary schools are inadequate and the available ones are not utilized by the teachers. It also shows that instructional materials utilized in the teaching and learning of integrated science enable students to make more achievement unlike situations were instructional materials used are not inadequate. Some problems are made to militate against the utilization of available instructional materials in the teaching and learning process. Recommendations were made that government should make adequate provision for instructional materials for teaching og integrated science at various levels.  

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Learning and teaching are the core business of school and other centers of learning, which is the concern of a trained teacher. Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of stimulation, such as the use of instructional material like educational radio, charts, chalkboard, maps, film strips and real materials. Learning is a complex process; it is however defined as acquiring any skill that enriches the life; a relatively permanent change or attitude overtime brought about by experience. Learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skill, knowledge, perception, facts, principles and new information at hand. In the same sense, teaching is a social process; imparting knowledge, skills, habit, experience and value to someone else. When the students are given the chance to learn through more sense than one, they can learn faster.

The influence of instructional material in promoting students academic performance and teaching – learning process in education development is undisputable. The use of instructional material provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platform for conveying information since they motivate learner to learn more. Learning can be reinforced with learning aids (instructional material) of different varieties because they stimulate, motivate as well as arrest learner’s attention. Furthermore, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that would have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic. Lane (2011) noted that the use of electronically mediated instruction to duplicate the traditional – face – to – face classroom  has resulted in a shift from teacher to students centered classes.  In this situation responsibility of learning is shifted to the students. The teacher facilitates the learning by acting as a coach, resource guide and companion in learning. The use of instructional material does not only encourage teacher and students to work collaboratively but also result in more cooperative learning activities among the students.

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Ikerionwu (2010) referred instructional material as objective or device which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. Instructional material stimulates the students desire to learn (Kay, 2010). It assist learning processes by making assimilation and memorization of material easy. The purpose of instructional materials is to promote efficiency of education by improving the quality of teaching and learning. Teaching aids (instructional materials) may be locally made or commercially produced which includes: wall – charts, illustrated pictures, pictorial materials and other two dimensional objects; Audio materials includes: tape recorder, teacher’s voice, radio, etc and audio – visual materials includes; television and all sort of projection with sounds.

Baja (2012) made mention of the attention which khabele (2010) drew to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) publication in which integrated science was defined as “an approach to the teaching of science in which concept and principles are presented so as to express the fundamental unity of scientific thought and avoid premature or undue stress on the distinctions between the various scientific field”. showalter (2009), opined that Integrated Science is “a planned instructional programme of science education in which science is viewed as a humanistic whole”. Science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the working of our world (ogunleye, 2012). Integration, when applied to science course means that the course is devised and presented in such a way that students gain the concept of the fundamental unity of science; the commonality of approach to problems of a scientific nature; and are helped to gain an understanding of the role and reactions of science in everyday life, and world in which they live. The teaching and learning of integrated science in junior secondary schools cannot be effectively accomplished without considering the availability and utilization of certain materials which assist learning processes in integrated science. For integrated science teachers to teach effectively and the learner to learn meaningfully, the teacher need to mobilize human material resources that will help achieve the objective of the lesson. The material resources otherwise referred to as “instructional materials” are means of classroom communication or they are aids employed in teaching learning process to facilitate learning. The resources for teaching integrated science in junior secondary schools students. There is no denying the fact that the knowledge of instructional material is a universal commodity and it is expected that in secondary school instructional material is very significant in learning of integrated science and simple enough for proper management and maintenance of both teachers and learners. Thus this study therefore examines the effect of availability and utilization of instructional materials in the achievement of integrated science students in junior secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State. Statement of the problem

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The importance of instructional materials in the development of learners’ intellectual abilities and attainment of teaching/learning objectives cannot be over-emphasized. The students taught with instructional materials have excellent achievement scores compared with those taught without any material (Olayinka, 2016). Hence, Bawa (2016) referred instructional materials as anything a teacher uses in teaching and learning situation from small stones, pieces of papers, small sticks, a sample of a leaf, chalkboard, maps, charts, radio, television, computers. Generally, a lot of problems have been identifies which militate against, the performance of students in basic science. Some of the factors identified include lack of qualified teachers, lack of required textbooks, drawing card and pictures or appropriate materials, lack of funds, lack of workshop centers where improvised material could be made, lack of well – equipped laboratories, as well as time constraints. This study seeks to unravel the effect of availability and utilization of instructional material on the academic performance of integrated science student in junior secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to find out the effect of availability and utilization of instructional material on the academic Achievement of integrated science students in junior secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State.

Specifically, the study seeks to find out:

  1. If instructional materials are available for the teaching and learning of integrated science in junior secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State are sufficient.
  2. If teachers in junior secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State make use of the available instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science.
  3. If junior secondary school students from schools with adequate instructional materials will achieve more in integrated science than students from schools without adequate instructional materials.
  4. If integrated science students in schools where teachers utilize instructional materials achieve more in integrated science than students from schools where teachers do not utilize instructional materials.

Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  1. Are the instructional materials available for the teaching and learning of integrated science in junior secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of delta state sufficient?
  2. Do teachers in junior secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State make use of the available instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science?
  3. Do junior Secondary school students from schools with adequate instructional materials achieve more in integrated science than students from schools without adequate instructional materials?
  4. Do integrated science students in schools where teachers utilize instructional materials achieve more in integrated science than students from schools where teachers do not utilize instructional materials?

Significance of the Study

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The research work will be useful to the school administrators, teachers, parent, students and stake holders. It is envisaged that this study will provide valuable data to the school academic administrators and curriculum planners on utilization of instructional material in the teaching of integrated science to students in junior secondary schools in delta state. This will motivate them to provide necessary instrumental materials to schools.

It will bring about more motivation to integrated science teachers to develop interest towards utilizing suitable or available teaching materials that will be a possible means towards reducing failure in the teaching and learning of integrated science. Moreover, the results of this finding may also serve as a pivot to other researchers who may want to investigate the effect of availability and utilization of instructional material in delta state.

The study may provide information to parents and the integrated science student in particular to seek for admission in schools where instructional materials are utilized in teaching and learning of integrated science.

This study may also inform stakeholders in education to help in the provision of instructional materials to schools.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

The study focused on the effect of availability and utilization of instructional material on the academic achievement of integrated science students in junior secondary schools in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State.

Operation Definition Of Terms

Integrated science: integrated science is an approach to the teaching of science in which concept and principles are presented so as to express the fundamental unity of scientific thought and avoid premature or undue stress on the distinctions between the various scientific fields.

Instructional Materials: they are educational resources used to improve students knowledge, abilities, skills, to monitor assimilation of information and to contribute to their overall development and upbringing. They are also means of classroom communication; they serve as aids employed in teaching and learning process to facilitate academic performances.

Teaching: Teaching is a delegate activity done in professional manner to bring a positive change on the behavior of the learner. Teaching is an interaction between a teacher and a student under the teacher’s responsibility in order to bring about the expected change in the students behavior.

Learning: Learning involves changes in behavior pattern of an individual. It is also the process of acquiring knowledge or skills and attitude. It can also be defined as a relatively lasting change in behavior that is induced directly by practice.

Utilization: Utilization mean ability to employ appropriate instructional materials expertly and at the right time in order to attain an instructional objective.

Availability: Availability is the quality of being at hand when needed. It is a process of something being accessible when needed.

Achievement: Achievement is an act or process of getting something done successfully especially using one’s own effort and skill.


Pages:  63

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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