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Challenges Associated With Immunization Of Children Among Illiterate Mothers In Oshimili South Local Government Area Of Delta State




The study was to examine the challenges associated with immunization of children among illiterate mothers in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. To achieve the essence, the study was divided into five chapters. Three research questions were raise and answered in the study, related literature were reviewed in the study. The study used a descriptive survey. The population comprised of all government health centre in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. Simple random sampling techniques were used to select three health centres which eighty (80) mothers and forty (40) health workers were selected from the selected health centre which comprises of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents.  The instrument for data collection was questionnaire which was validated by one lecturers from the school of Science Education and a lecturer in measurement and evaluation. The method of data collection was mean statistics to answer the research questions. The findings revealed that mothers ignorance contribute to their attitude towards immunization, mothers failure to immune a child influence the child’s mortality rate and attitude of health workers influence mothers’ willingness to immunize their children. 



Background to the Study

Immunization is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to reduce child mortality. Routine immunization schedule in Nigeria involves administration of six vaccines to children to prevent the childhood killer diseases. The vaccines include Bacillus calmette-guerin (BCG), Oral polio vaccine (OPV), Diphtheria pertussis tetanus (DPT), Measles, Yellow fever and Hepatitis B (WHO, 2012). It is also recommended three doses of hepatitis B vaccine and one dose of a measles virus containing vaccine, either anti-measles alone or in combination with other antigens (Burton & Griffiths 2014). To boost immunity at older ages additional immunizations are recommended for healthcare workers, travelers, high- risks groups and people in areas where the risk of specific vaccine preventable disease is high. The immunization of a new born child is a very important way of preventing illness considering the way common diseases that claimed the life of children. When more than 50% of a community population are immunized against a disease, the possibility of epidemic is removed. Supporting this view, Ogbuibe (2015) pointed out that the entry point to be till introduction of all elements of primary health care system, immunization against diseases in one of the fairly they elements of the child’s survival and development. The national programme of immunization was for certain target groups of the population mainly children within the large group of 0-2 years and pregnant mothers or women. it is xx. against the six deadly and childhood diseases. These diseases are tuberculosis measles, poliomyelitis, tetanus, chicken pox and whooping cough. The high rate of mortality from disease preventable by immunization underscores the need for immunization was the most effective programme to reduce these diseases for which satisfactory immunization procedures have been established.

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When a disease is peculiar to certain area, health authorities may recommend immunization of all persons in that area particularly those who are likely to be exposed to it. To buttress this view, Anderson (2012) suggested that mass immunization against typhoid fever is not advocated but if an epidemic occurs in a community, health authorities may implore all susceptible persons to be immunized. The success of any immunization programme depends largely on the target population. It is pertinent to note that mothers are the persons in the issues of the children rearing pattem in our society whereby the mothers rather than fathers are the home keepers and know better about their children’s immunization status. Therefore, all children should be protected. All mothers should understand the importance of immunization to ensure this, Sohem (2005) recommended the vaccination of all new born children should be registered at all health clinics for routine immunization. This entails that they should undergo all stages of immunization.


According to the oxford advanced learners dictionary (2014), immunization is the process of protecting an individual or animal from a disease especially by giving them an injection or a Vaccine. Immunization is also defined as a process by which human beings protect themselves from, or against deadly diseases such as poliomyelitis, measles, tuberculosis, diphtheria, whooping cough, vaccination is also another name for immunizing living things against deadly diseases. Immunization is done to make the body resist invasion of pathogenic microbes like bacteria, protozoa and virus. In immunization, a small quantity of a dead parasitic organism is injected into the body of a healthy person (somebody that is free from that parasite organism), the body recognized the antigen as foreign response by realizing specialized protein called antibodies. These antibodies have specific protective properties and the body became immune against the disease that Was caused by micro-organisms. Immunization can be active, positive, natural, or acquired.

Immunization is the act of protecting someone against a disease by the intake of inoculation of vaccine or other protective agents which stimulate natural body resistance. It could be active or passive. Immunization is the active which involves administering agents which stimulates the receivers’ own immunological mechanism who responds by producing reactions in his resistance to infect by the organisms from which the antigen was derived or obtained. This takes several Weeks to produce effective protection hence it has a prophylactic value but last forever. On the other hand, immunization is said to be passive by the giving of already made anti-bodies formed by another lost in response to natural injection. This has immediate protective and therapeutic value but last for a short period.

Parent especially the mothers in question do not get their children immunized. The superstition belief ‘or idea that disease are caused by Witches and wizards are strongly rooted in their mind, some believes that diseases are caused by evil spirit and the only way out for them to avoid it is by offering sacrifice and some believe that it is the sin that the parents have committed towards the gods that make the child to be like that and there is no solution to the sickness of the child, some parent know where and how to obtain it but do not take their          children to the clinic for immunization while others that made attempts to take their children to the clinic for immunization may start and will not complete the normal dose they are supposed to give to that child. In a particular health center, Asaba Health center in Delta State, between January 2008 to December 2011, Sixty-six thousand six hundred and forty two (66,642) children were registered for different types of immunization. Out of these only fourty-four thousand six hundred and twenty two (44, 622) children completed their immunization the remaining twenty two thousand and twenty (22,020) fail to complete their immunization. Some mothers later brought their children to complete their immunization after a long time. When they asked them why they did not bring their children ever since, the most population reason they gave was that, they were not chanced due to their jobs. They devoted much time to their jobs e.g. trading, government workers, farmers, etc. Others said they came several times but in most occasions, the nurses asked them to go home that the health of their babies was poor or they are on public holiday.

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 Statement of the Problem

The decision to carry out the study was due to the challenges associated with immunization of children among the illiterate mothers in Oshimili south Local Government Area. In the past, many children died before the age of 5 or before the school age due to communicable diseases e.g. tuberculosis, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, whooping cough, measles, tetanus etc. they did not know that these disease could be prevented. These communicable disease were discovered by scientific researcher, clinics are established where the disease can be prevented by treatment. Many people are not still making use of the clinic and health center, perhaps due to ignorance, inability of mothers to get the facilities, non availability of vaccine, lack of awareness by illiterate mothers, lack of understanding, bad road, lack of transportation to the health centers and lack of finance. All these are usually the challenges faced by illiterate mothers 

Research Questions

Based on the assumption made, the following research questions are postulated.

  1. Does ignorance of mothers contribute to their attitude towards immunization?
  2. Does lack of immunization lead to death of children?
  3. Do mother get actively involved and delighted in the immunization of the children?
  4. Does the behavior of health workers affect mothers in the immunization of their children?
  5. Does financial constraint of health units and parents affect immunization of the children?

Purpose of the Study

This research Work was an attempt to study the challenges faced by illiterate mothers towards immunization in Oshimili South Local Government Area in Delta State. The purpose of this study is to:

  1. Find out ignorance of mothers contribute to their attitude towards immunization.
  2. Know if lack of immunization lead to death of children.
  3. Know if mothers get actively involved and delighted in the immunization of their children.
  4. Determine if the behaviour of health workers affect mothers in the immunization of their children.
  5. Find out if financial constraints of health units and parents affects mothers from
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Significance of the Study

This research is expected to be of great importance to parents and the general public in Oshimili South Local Government Area who will appreciate the implication of the challenges of immunization and know the best way to handle them. The study conducted was done to aid the following group of people.

  1. The children
  2. The mothers
  3. The health center
  4. Ministry of health, Delta State.

The Children: The children will benefit from these work because it will help them know the type of immunization they have taken, in-case there is need for another immunization to be taken.

The Mothers: The mother will be advice properly on what they should do. The information gathered will be of great importance which may change mother’s attitudes towards immunization programme, the information will also educate illiterate mothers.

The health center: The suggestion made will be used as a source of correction measure to health persons on one way or the other may have contributed to the Iukewarm attitude of health workers when mothers bring their children for immunization. Through health education and follow up to trace defaulters.

Ministry of health, Delta State: The findings may serve as a clue for Delta State Ministry of health to make better plan by making of health workers to make better plan by making adequate provision of vaccine, and training more people into the health sector to promote child immunization in Delta State.

Scope of the Study

This is restricted to the attitude of mothers towards immunization in some selected health Centres in Oshimili Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample population is made up of mothers who were selected by simple random process.

Limitations of the Study

The study was originally designed to cover all the health centers in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. However, the study is limited to only three health centers in the local government area because of time available and financial constraints of the researcher.

Definition of Terms

Health: The state of well being physically and mentally.

Health Center: A building Where group of doctors, nurses and health workers see their patients.

Mothers: A female parent of a child.

Child: A young human who is not yet an adult.

Immunization: To protect a person or an animal from disease or an animal from disease especially by giving them an injection or a vaccine.

Measles: An infectious disease especially of children that cause fever and small red spots that cover the Whole body.

Tuberculosis: A serious infectious disease in which swellings appear on the lungs and other part of the body.

Pages:  73

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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