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Effect of Administrator’s supervisory skills on teacher’s performance in secondary schools in Owerri North Local Government Area




The study is on “Effect of Administrator’s supervisory skills on teacher’s performance in secondary schools in Owerri North Local Government Area”. The study has three objectives and three research questions. Survey research design was used for the study. The population of the study comprises 564 respondents; 466 teachers and 98 school administrators (principals) in government owned secondary schools in Owerri North local government area of Imo State. A sample of 280 secondary school teachers and 40 school administrators was drawn through proportionate stratified simple random sampling technique. The instrument that was used for data collection was a questionnaire called Internal Supervision Assessment Scale (ISAS). The findings show that Internal instructional supervision is carried out to a high extent in secondary schools of Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State. Internal instructional supervision influence teachers’ performance to a high extent in secondary schools of Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State by improving teachers and various skills in the teaching processes. The study conducted and analysed also shows that lack of personnel cause problem in school administration, it seen also that lack of teachers motivation in schools also cause a greater problem in effective teaching and learning exercise of students. The study therefore recommended among others that, Ministry of Education should formulate strategies in order to assist the school administrators to intensify the implementation of more effective internal instructional supervision in secondary schools in Imo State. The Imo State ministry of education, through the science and technical schools board should intensify external supervision in colleges to ensure consistent and all round internal supervision by school administrators. The school principals should provide adequate instructional materials and facilities through Parents-Teachers Associations, (PTA), Old Students‘ Associations, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Communities, Philanthropists and other Development Partners, to enhance effective teaching and learning processes in secondary schools. The school principals should provide constant and adequate feedback to the teachers on their instructional task performance to ensure periodic review and facilitate further improvement in the teaching-learning process in secondary schools.



In this chapter, the researcher discusses the background of the study, statement of the problem, scope of the study, significance of the study as well as the research questions.


Supervision has been conceived as the improvement of teaching and learning process for the ultimate benefit of the learner who is regarded as the pivot of education. In the same vein, Supervision is essentially a leadership function, a kind of superior subordinate relationship, where a leader or an officer instructs, oversees and corrects subordinates in order to enhance effective performance. Supervision is needed in effective and efficient school activities, so that educators can really give their best in their various duties posts and as well make extra ordinary contribution to brandishing learners who will be capable of competing globally with their counterparts. Adelakun (2005).

Supervision of teacher is the means by which subordinate staff of the school are mobilized and motivated towards the full attainment of the goals and objectives of the school they serve. Supervision ensures that the right thing is done through direction and monitoring of teacher activities in school; that is making checks and balances to some specially assigned duties.

Key (2000) defines Supervision in education as “that phrase of school administration which focuses primarily on the achievement of education aims and objectives. He further opines that supervision is an activity which involves guiding refreshing, encouraging, improving and overseeing the teaching and learning with the hope of asking that co-operation of the teachers in order for the supervisor to be successful in his supervisory functions.

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The major goal of most nations of the world has been the achievement of educational excellence. This is so, because education has been adjudged the key with any nation could permanently close the door of poverty and ignorance, and simultaneously open the door of prosperity in terms of economic buoyancy, social advancement and civilization. Since education is accepted to be an instrument of change alongside the element of growth, teachers are the operators of the instrument while the students could be regarded as the raw materials on which the changes would be manifested over a period of time.

However, both the teacher and students’ input are quite important and relevant to the school system, for they are the principal actors on stage. In the process of teaching and learning, some extraneous variables sometimes interfere with the plans and patterns of operation within the school, the teachers personality, his attitude to work, motivation, discipline, student background and environment which would individually or collectively have either positive or negative effects on the school system and its end results.

The process of supervision is complex and it pervades the whole structure of the school system. There seems to be little or no area of operation within the school where the need for supervision would not arise, but it may be in varying degrees. Teachers have been accused of divided loyalty, non-chalant attitude and indiscipline among the teacher and the students was also discovered. There is a constant comparison of the past with the present, more especially when government or voluntary agencies or school inspectors are compared with those of today. Parents do complain about their children or ward’s inability to communicate effectively in other languages apart from their mother tongue. With this, they thought the school system is fast losing its glamour and orientation, which is indirectly affecting the attainment of the national aims of education. It is therefore very importance for these concerns to critically look into the crucial areas within the school system that requires supervision, these are the instructional and discipline areas, where both the content method and mode of delivery and personality of both the student and the teachers are examined to ensure their adequacy for the school system. Ajibade (1993).

In teaching and learning situation, the materials to be transformed are the children. The people involved in the process of transforming the child in the school are the most appropriate academically qualified personnel’s being appointed to involve in this channel. Well qualified masters are also made head of department in school to co-ordinate the work of the teachers involved in the teaching of their various special subjects.

The secondary schools system in Imo State has under gone series of changes in administration, these was a period when the secondary schools were been managed under the voluntary agencies like the Baptist, Roman Catholic, Private Owners and others together with the Local Education Authority. During those days, principals of secondary schools were chosen by the administrative assistance of various agencies and the local education officer. At this period of time no university agreed rules and policy exists is such voluntary agency had its own criteria. The principal at that time worked in close relation with the administrative assistance in the running of the secondary school since the quality of an educational system of a country depends to a large extent on the qualities of the leaders, thus the opportunity open to principals in participating in the teaching and learning format of the school was inadequate as it did not allow for principals initiatives. The principal plays an important role in determines the kind of human being those students under his control will be later in the adult life. Therefore, it is advisable for the principal to know those qualities that are expected of him.

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Effective supervision of the school ensure proper function and mutual interaction of both human and non-human resources involved in the processing of the child and harmonize the efforts of all designated school personnel. The adverse effects of supervision may lead to a situation instead of being objective, he will be subjective and this supervision may lead to a situation whereby both the principal and the teachers put in their very best in order to satisfy the supervisor, after which they withdraw their efforts at the end of supervision. This leads to a kind of eye service performance in the school.

Regular and thorough inspection of secondary school will meet the challenge posed by the rapidly changing school curriculum. It will also prevent the inculcation of poor curriculum into the mind of the student which if allowed to be taught would lead to the promotion of “half baked” school leavers and instead turning out productive student, they will graduate to be liabilities to themselves in particular and to the society in general, therefore make the aims and purpose of education to be defeated. How best to get the optimum out of the school system in face of declining input has been a major problem facing the school system. How best to make both the learner and the teacher productive has also been the source of anxiety within and outside the school system. Generally, how to make the school system responsive to the need of the society individually and collectively has been a major concern for all the citizenry.

However, when all resource are in place, the need to monitor the operation within the school system and by making use of the materials or resource effectively so as to get the best out of the school system. Hence, teaching and learning are the major activities going on in the school; therefore, there is a need for efficiency and effectiveness.

This study is therefore carried out to investigate the effect of administrator’s supervisory skills on teachers’ performance in students of secondary schools in Owerri North LGA, Imo State.

Statement of the Problem

The study is borne out of the teachers’ ineffective teaching performance observed recently in Secondary schools, where teachers do what they like. It is assumed that the achievement of any student may be an indication of the teachers’ effectiveness in teaching. The main problem of this study is to find out the supervisory role played by administrators on teachers’ teaching effectiveness? How effective is the supervisory role of the ministry of education on the secondary school and how teachers of all these selected secondary schools performing their job within the area under study.

Purpose of the Study

The Purpose of this study is to determine the effects of administrator supervisory skills in teachers’ performance in students of secondary in Owerri North LGA, Imo State. It has been realized that one of the most paramount factors that can hinder that student’s academic performance in school is in the effectiveness of any given teacher toward students learning abilities.

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The specific objectives include:

  1. to determine whether teachers’ supervisory activities have contributed to their effectiveness in secondary schools in Owerri North LGA.
  2. to determine the impact of internal supervisory administrative skills on students academic performance in secondary schools in Owerri North LGA
  • to examine the factors militating against teachers performance during teaching and learning exercise in secondary schools in Owerri North LGA

Significance of the Study

This study would provide useful information to the government, educational agencies, school administrators and society at large. The finding would further reveal the importance and the effects of supervision on teachers’ effectiveness.

It will help in bringing to the knowledge of government to organize seminars and workshops in order to expose teachers to some many academic activities; this will in turn help in student performance in external examinations.

The finding of the study will provide training information to educational agencies which will be incorporated to the curriculum. The curriculum planners will integrate the information into the training model or packages of the examination bodies and provide a better instructional material that helps to make it easy for students to understand and find their subjects easy in secondary level.

The outcome of this study will be of great benefit to school administrator as the information from this research work will serve as a blueprint in reviewing important program guideline to help teachers to further their education and get more knowledge on the self examination and studies because they are the only way to student’s future.

Finally, the study might help in revitalizing the issue of falling standard of education as a result of poor administration while it demands proper organization and planning. Thereby making the society to benefit from the study and also help in making effective use of human and materials resource that are available to the schools in the society.


Scope of the Study

The scope for this study comprised of some selected public secondary schools in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Both the teachers and the principals of these selected schools form the target population for this study.

Research Questions

Attention will be taken and given adequately on the following questions:

  1. To what extent do teacher supervision activities have contributed to the effectiveness of student in their school in secondary schools in Owerri North LGA?
  2. What are the impacts of internal supervisory administrative skills on student’s academic performance in secondary schools in Owerri North LGA?
  3. What are the factors militating against teachers performance during teaching and learning exercise in secondary schools in Owerri North LGA?

Operation Definition of Terms

It is important to state the operational definitions of the concepts used or the term used in the study. The term includes:

INVESTIGATION: The act of making enquiry into a particular study at hand. That is, going very deep into a subject matter.

SUPERVISION: This is to see that the right thing is done through directing and proper monitoring. This means acting as a check and balances to some specially assigned duties.

TEACHER: Someone who makes other people learn what they may not have known. A teacher is someone whose job is to impact knowledge to others.

EFFECTIVENESS: Result produced due to an action taken on the long run, which is interesting enough to be noticed.

PERFORMANCE: Action seen, noticed or felt due to its effects on other people.

Pages:  64

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF         

Chapters: 1-5                                 

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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