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Strategies For Effective Enterpreneurship Training And Education As Strategic Tools For Poverty Alleviation In Nigeria

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ABSTRACT

The main objective of this study is to investigate the intensity of entrepreneurship training and education as strategic tools for poverty alleviation in Nigeria with particular reference to the Faculty of Education, Imo State University Owerri. Four research questions were formulated and a descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study comprised of two thousand, nine hundred and forty-eight (2,948) students of the faculty of education from the 2016/2017 session. However, a sample of 120 students were randomly drawn from the total population. The method of data collection was through the use of a questionnaire which was structured on a four point likert scale. The data were analyzed using arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results indicated that there are significant roles played out by parents and employers of labor towards ensuring entrepreneurship training and education of their wards/youths. Also, the study revealed that the place of government and non-governmental organization as well as society value system cannot be overemphasized in the enhancement of effective entrepreneurship training and education in Nigeria. The study recommends amongst other things, government investing heavily in higher education and the heads of institutions, investing massively in training of specialists in the field, creating entrepreneurial drive in students via organizing of conferences, seminars and workshops on entrepreneurship.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the researcher provides a concise overview of this work and comprise of six subheadings; background of the study, statement of the problem, scope of the study, purpose of the study, significance of the study and the research questions.

Background of the Study

In Nigeria, as well as other African countries, poverty is described as a socio-economic problem that affects the growth and development of the said economy. The governments of these countries have designed and embarked on several measures to reduce the degree of poverty as well as see to the improvements of the social well being of its masses with Nigeria not exceptional.

The federal government of Nigeria has initiated several measures and policies to see to the reduction of the level of poverty amongst its people and entrepreneurship education is viewed to be one of such measures. However, it will be of necessity to explain the terms – “Poverty, Poverty Alleviation, Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Education”,  so as to attain a clear view of what it entails in regards to the purpose of this study.

According to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, Poverty is a state of being poor. It is the inability of a household. Also, “poverty is a state of involuntarily deprivation to which a person. Households, community or nation can be subjected to, Osen (2007). Poverty, also is a condition in which one cannot generate sufficient income required to secure a minimum standard of living in a sustainable pattern. In Nigeria, poverty arises as a result of lack of employment opportunities, high rate of illiteracy amongst the citizenry, mismanagement of public funds, bad governance as well as the instability of governments and its policies.

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The World Bank indicates that poverty is categorized as both absolute and relative. When poveRty is said to be absolute, it describes as a lack of resources to meet the physical needs for survival, a lack of basic security, the absence of one or more factors that enables the individuals and families to assume basic responsibilities and to enjoy fundamental rights. On the other hand, relative poverty can be categorized in relation to particular groups or areas in relation to the economic status of other members of the society which is interpreted as a lack of resources to achieve a standard of living that allows people to play roles, participate in relationships, and live a life that is deemed normative of the society to which they belong. Poverty is widely understood as the condition of living on an income below certain minimum threshold.

Poverty alleviation can be seen to be a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty. It is the efforts aimed at reducing the magnitude of poverty in a nation. The federal government of Nigeria on this basis, had designed several programmes aimed at alleviating poverty. Some of which are; National Accelerated Food Production (NAFP) in 1972, Operation Feed the Nation (OFN) in 1976, The Green Revolution (TGR) in 1980, Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986, National Directorate for Employment (NDF) in 1980 etc. The success of these programmes in poverty alleviation remains an issue of argument neither based on the premise that previous and subsequent programmes designed towards alleviating poverty by various regimes, have neither yielded a positive result nor become successful. Based on this structural and functional flaws found in the nation’s developmental blueprint, that the federal government opted for the introduction of Entrepreneurship training and education as a means to the alleviation of poverty in the nation. Alan Singer (2006), states that the best cure of poverty alleviation on any region of the world lie in encouraging more on business activity and start-up of new ventures through Entrepreneurship.

The term ‘Entrepreneurship’ is defined as the identification of a new business opportunity and the mobilization of economic resources to initiate a new business or regenerate an existing business under the conditions of risks and uncertainties for the purpose of making profits under private ownership. Osuagwu (2002), defines it as a catalyst to increase the rate of economic growth, creating job opportunities as well as reducing the dependence on the imports of manufactured goods.

In simple terms, Entrepreneurship is a process which may develop a single entrepreneur or enterprise with the main objective of making profit by the use of scarce resources most likely under private ownership. It is also concerned with creating long-term value and creates regular cash flow streams on an individual or group of individuals for the purpose of maximizing profits and minimizing risk with the view of long term expansion. According to Kuraka and Hodgetts (2006), Entrepreneurship is a dynamic process of vision, change and creation.

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Entrepreneurship education is considered central to the economic development of nations. It creates enormous business opportunities and trains people with innovative enterprise skills to group the opportunities for starting new entrepreneurial activities. Entrepreneurship education is one way of addressing poverty reduction as there is a strong empirical evidence suggesting that economic growth over time is necessary for poverty reduction.

Griffin and Hommis (2003) sees Entrepreneurship education as natural fit for business education departments as well as other departments in Nigerian higher institutions as most of these departments integrates the functional areas of business, finance etc. which are needed for a new venture to operate in a bid to reduce poverty. It is the incorporation into the student syllabus, steps involved in starting a new business based on a recognized business opportunity. It is designed to teach the skills and knowledge that is needed to be known before embarking on a new business.

It is in recognition of these problems that militate against an effective poverty alleviation that the researcher has decided to embark on this study using Imo State University undergraduates as a case study.

Statement of Problem

Entrepreneurship skills acquired through entrepreneurial training and education has been recognized as an important aspect of organization and economies, Dickson, (2008). It contributed in an immeasurable way towards creating new jobs, wealth creation, poverty reduction as well as income generation for both government and individuals. Schumpeter (1934), argued that entrepreneurial education is very significant to the growth and development of economies. Having understood the vital role of Entrepreneurship in economic development, it becomes apparent that careful attention is needed to invest and promote Entrepreneurship.

Education and training, is seen as one of the preconditions for Entrepreneurship development particularly in a place where the spirit and culture is very minimal. It is said to be an important determinant of selection into Entrepreneurship information of new venture and entrepreneurial success, Dickson, Solomon and Weaver (2008). The move towards poverty reduction should not be considered and treated in isolation, rather a different approach and strategy needs to be employed; for any country to foster genuine economic growth and development, its education system must be considered as a basis and essential ingredient.

However, entrepreneurial education can bridge the gap by equipping the masses especially the undergraduates in various institutions in becoming successful entrepreneurs, thereby reducing poverty which arises from unemployment in the nation. This study will however find out how the Entrepreneurship education provided to the masses especially in the higher institution syllabus has prepared the students for future employment challenges.

Scope of the Study

The study examines the role of entrepreneurial education in the poverty reduction and social development of Nigeria, its significance is in the stimulation of the Entrepreneurship skills in the masses especially future graduates who are considered leaders of tomorrow in order to reduce poverty in Nigeria. The study considers the undergraduates from the Faculty of Education, Imo State University. This study considers entrepreneurial skills to be relevant because of its immediate impact on the future of Nigeria.

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Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to examine the strategies for effective Entrepreneurship training and education as strategic tools for poverty alleviation in Nigeria.

The following are the specific purposes of the study;

  1. To examine if Entrepreneurial education has been useful tool for reducing poverty in Nigeria.
  2. To ascertain if there is compulsory Entrepreneurial education for all students in Nigerian higher institutions,
  3. To find out if the available Entrepreneurship education in institutions can stimulate Entrepreneurship skills in the masses especially future graduates.

Significance of the Study

The significance of the study brings to the fore the crucial need for Entrepreneurial education in Nigeria, putting more consideration on the educational system, strategies and its eventual social developmental effect in the society.

Secondly, the study highlights the problems of the level of education in the country and its equivalence to the level of poverty in the society by virtue of lack of knowledge on how to start up businesses which resultant effect is a society that breeds healthy partnership and motivation, impacting on the development of the nation.

Furthermore, the contribution of this research work to knowledge identifies what is important to the economy, which is qualitative Entrepreneurial education focused on the needs of the economy per time, rather than the resolution of the United Nations to increase budgetary details, increasing the people that go through school.

Also, it will produce a platform for the inculcation of Entrepreneurial skills on future graduates and as well, provide the management of our respective higher institutions, especially that of Imo State University to find the work indispensible, as it will provide a clearer understanding of the necessity of the introduction of this course to the school’s syllabus.

Through this, management of schools and teachers will be able to tap the critical skills of Entrepreneurship to tackle and resolve issues of enrolment. School management will also be committed to advance Entrepreneurship in their communities, thereby creating an Entrepreneurial culture in their schools or colleges and in some cases support local start-ups and small scale businesses.

Research Questions

The following research questions are posed for the study;

  1. What role would parents play towards effective Entrepreneurship training and education of their wards?
  2. What roles would employers of labour play to ensure effective Entrepreneurship training and education in youths?
  3. What strategies would the government and non-governmental organizations undertake for effective Entrepreneurship training and education in Nigeria?
  4. How would the societal value system enhance effective Entrepreneurship training and education in Nigeria?

    Pages:  63

    Category: Project

    Format:  Word & PDF         

    Chapters: 1-5                                 

    Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.Project


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