Connect with us

Nutrition & Dietetics

Comparative Study Of The Anthropometric Indices And Environmental Challenges Of The Elderly (70 And Above) Living In Old People’s Home And Those Living With Families

Published

on

ABSTRACT

The general objectives of the study are to assess the anthropometric indices and environmental challenges of the elderly (70 and above) living in old people’s home and those living with families. This research will help community nutritionist, social welfare and extension workers in educating the elderly in adopting healthy feeding habits. The result of this study will enable policy makers to identify the nutritional problems of the elderly and channel their nutrition plans towards solving them. Also information from this study could be useful to then government for the well –being of the elderly on food security. Furthermore, information from this study will form a guide to food Scientists Nutritionists and other professionals in the same field. The study was carried out in Owerri municipal. This research was a cross-sectional study designed to be carried out on the elderly (70 and above) in Owerri municipal council, Imo State. Random sampling was used. From the result, feeding pattern in both those living in their homes and those living in the old peoples home shows a positive relationship (8.065) with a standard error of 1.550, while it has a negative/inverse relationship with BMI (-1.884). this implies that BMI is not directly related to feeding pattern but can be accelerated by other factors. Also both feeding pattern and WHR shows positive relationship, while BMI indicated a negative relationship. R2= 0.490 indicating that feeding pattern contribution to BMI can only be explained by 49%, while the explanatory variables contributed to 87.3% and 99.8% respectively. Intuitively, we can say that people who feed well will have a good and normal BMI and WHR also feeding pattern (FP) shows a negative relationship with environmental factor. (-0.200). this is because the feeding pattern of a person is not dependent on his environment, hence a negative relationship.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Ageing in humans refers to a multi-dimensional process of physical, psychological and social change (Kunzmann et al., 2010). Ageing is an important part of all human societies reflecting then biological changes that occur but also reflecting cultural and societal convention. Roughly 100,000 people die each day to age related causes (Ponnappan and Pannappan, 2011). People do not become old or elderly at any specific age. Traditionally, age 65 has been designated as the beginning of old age. But the reason was based in history not biology (Acharaya, 2008). Many years ago, age 65 was chosen as the age for retirement in Germany, the first notion to establish a retirement age for most people in development societies, although this tradition is changing (Morley, 2010). The nature of the ageing process has been the subject of considerable speculation. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the sum of the deleterious free radial reactions going on continuously throughout the cells and tissues constitutes the ageing process or is a major contributor to it. (Kinght et al., 2010). In cities or town valve of cholesterol, blood pressure and body weight rise with age but in the rural areas such so not occur. Rather, there is usually anemia or scurry disease (Kinght et al., 2010). Although malnutrition has been largely eliminated from most sections of our population. It is occasionally found amongst the elderly.

See also  Nutrient Composition And Sensory Properties Of Cookies Made From Hungry Rice (Digitaria Exilis) And Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea) Flour Blends

The ageing population is expanding through-out the globe with estimates that people age over 60 years and older constitute 12% of global population. The proportion of this age group is expected to double (22%) by 2050 (WHO, 2014; WHO, 2015). Currently, 125 million people are aged 80 years or older and two third of this population live in low and middle- income countries (WHO, 2015; UN, 2013). Developing world is expected to face more burdens of elderly population in future due to higher elderly population growth rate as compared to industrialized nations (WHO, 2015). In Nepal, the Central Bureau of Statistics (2011) reported that the percentage of population aged 60 years and above increased from 5.0% during 1952-54, 5.8% in 1991, 6.5% during 2001 to 8.1% in 2011 accounting for an increase of nearly 2.46 millions old age population in Nepal. The life expectancy at birth for Nepalese female and male is 67.4 years and 64.94 years respectively.6 In such circumstances, elderly homes and religious sites are the major destinations for senior citizens out of their family during the old age (Acharaya, 2008; GNC, 2010). However, only about total of 1500 elderly people across the country have been benefiting from elderly homes (Pun and Pandey, 2009).

As the number of older people continues to accelerate, provision of better-quality healthcare to the elderly is crucial (WHO, 2015; Agarwal et al., 2013). With the age advances there is increased morbidity and functional loss (Ponnappan and Pannappan, 2011). Aging may ensue with accretion of diseases and impairments, including cognitive and physical decline, depressive symptoms and emotional changes, all of which may directly affect the balance between nutritional needs and intake (Edington et al., 2010; Hickson, 2006). Poor nutrition among elderly is not merely the results of old age and aging process; older adults are at risk for malnutrition due to physiological, psychological, social, dietary, and environmental risk factors (Ahmed and Haboubi, 2010). More often the focus of nutrition in older adults is a healthy diet and physical activity to minimize the risk of developing lifestyle diseases (Amarya et al., 2015). However, there is an ample of evidences to suggest that protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common nutritional problem in elderly population (Agarwal et al., 2013). Malnutrition in elder population is mostly associated with complications and premature death (Hickson, 2006; Ahmed and Haboubi, 2010). The progression to malnutrition is often insidious and covert (Ahmed and Haboubi, 2010). Malnutrition plays vice-versa role (both cause and effects) of illness (Nutrition Supply for Adult, 2016). In addition, many factors appears to contribute the nutritional condition evidenced with aging (WHO, 2015; Evans, 2005). Physical or physiologic problems related to chewing, digestion and absorption of food, lack of appetite, smoking, alcohol consumption and excessive use of medication and also lifestyle, hormonal changes and diseases play a role in malnutrition (Evans, 2005). Poor nutritional status among elder people related to increased morbidity and mortality (Evans, 2005; Amarya et al., 2015). Also, nutritional status is related to the overall quality of life and health (Amarantos et al., 2011).

See also  Factors That Influence The Feeding Practices And Nutritional Status Of Infants In Nsu Town

Assessing nutritional status in the elderly population is critical in determining health status (Amella, 2012). The mini nutritional assessment (MNA) is a practical, non-invasive technique for rapidly evaluating potential risk of malnutrition in the elderly (Bhandari, 2014; Shrestha, 2010). This instrument has received recognition as a suitable screening tool and has been validated to a limited degree in various samples of elderly persons from around the world (Amella, 2012).

1.2 Statement of the problem

There is  scarcity of evidences in the area of nutritional and health of elderly population in Nigeria. The changing demography trends in Nigeria explicitly demands evidences to address elderly health and nutritional issues. It is obvious that the identification of nutritional status and related factors allows interventions directed to the actual needs of the elderly population aimed at healthy ageing and quality of life for all.

Aging is also associated with decreased physical activity and progressive depletion of lean body mass. Coupled with changes in the diet, this can lead to a lot of muscle mass, known as sarcopenia, decreased functional ability and increased dependence on others to perform activities of daily living.

Older persons who are obese are also at risk of sarcopenix because fat often replace muscle mass, resulting in decreased functionality.

See also  Chemical And Microbial Composition Of Moi-Moi Sold In Imo State University Canteen

Along with physiologic changes, the elderly may also experience profound psychological and environmental changes, such as loneliness, depression and inadequate finances. This affects dietary pattern and nutritional status.

In this context, the present study aims to assess the anthropometric indices and environmental challenges of the elderly (70 and above) living in old people’s home and those living with families.

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.3.1 General objective of study

The general objectives of the study is to assess the anthropometric indices and environmental challenges of the elderly (70 and above) living in old people’s home and those living with families.

1.3.2.Specific objectives of the study

The specific objectives of the study is to;

a). assess the anthropometric indices of the elderly living in old people’s home and those living with families.

b). assess the dietary pattern of the elderly living in old people’s home and those living with families.

c). identify some environmental challenges facing the elderly living in old people’s home and those living with families.

d). determine the relationship between the nutritional status and environmental challenges facing the elderly living in old people’s home and those living with families.

1.4 Significance of the study

This research will help community nutritionist, social welfare and extension workers in educating the elderly in adopting healthy feeding habits.

The result of this study will enable policy makers to identify the nutritional problems of the elderly and channel their nutrition plans towards solving them.

Also information from this study could be useful to then government for the well –being of the elderly on food security.

Furthermore, information from this study will form a guide to food Scientists Nutritionists and other professionals in the same field.


Pages:  120

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF                 

Chapters: 1-5                                                             

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

Project

Advertisement
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Advertisement

Project Materials

IMSU Info contains over 1000 project material in various departments, kindly select your department below to uncover all the topics/materials therein.

Trending