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Chemistry/Industrial Chemistry

The Study Of Zn2+ Ion Adsorption From Aqueous Solution Using Corn Seed Chaff

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ABSTRACT

The adsorption of  Zn2+ in aqueous solution by corn seed chaff biomass was studied at 28 oC, with  pH values ranging from 1 to 4 at different biomass loads. The result  obtained was 1.44%  to 14.8%  ranging  from 0.1g to 0.8g  and  the   result obtained  was 12.99 % to 1.44 %.   optimum percentage removal of  zn2+    was obtained  from  48.1 at  45 minutes. This batch study on adsorption efficiency of  Zn2+ in aqueous  solution  shows that adsorption capacity of Zn2+ was higher and  more effective  a pH of 4 biomass load 0.1 g and at 45 minutes. Optimum result attained for these  adsorption  were,14.8 % at pH 4, 12.99 % at biomass load 0.1 g and 48.1 % at 45 minutes contact time.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Rapid industrial development has led to an increased discharge of industrial effluents, which may contain heavy metals in concentrations well beyond the permissible limits, into the environment . The pollutants of serious concern include lead, chromium, mercury, uranium, selenium, zinc, arsenic, manganese, cadmium, gold, silver, copper, nickel etc. These toxic materials may be derived from mining operations, refining ores, sludge disposal, fly ash from incinerators, the processing of radioactive materials, metal plating, or the manufacture of electrical equipment, paints, alloys, batteries, textile dyeing, leather tanning, pesticides or preservatives. For instance, exposure to lead causes anemia, disease of the liver and kidney, brain damage and ultimately death, while, prolonged inhalation of  Cu2+ spray is claimed to cause an increase in the risk of lung cancer. However, extensive  research has been conducted on the discharge of metal ion contained in industrial effluents because of the presence and accumulation of toxic effects on living species. Some conventional methods used to remove heavy metals include chemical precipitation, ion exchange, electro dialysis, membrane separations, reverse osmosis, and solvent extraction. But these methods are often very costly, having inadequate efficiencies at low metal concentration. These constraints have caused the search for alternative methods that would be efficient for metal sequestering. Such a possibility offers a method that uses sorbents of modified agricultural waste and by-products for the removal of heavy metals from industrial effluent. Agricultural waste materials being economic and eco-friendly due to their unique chemical composition, availability in abundance, renewable, low in cost and more efficient are seem to be viable option for heavy metal remediation. These promising  agricultural waste materials are used in the removal of metal ions either in their natural form or after some physical or chemical modification. But, many studies have shown that the adsorption capacity of these adsorbents may be increased by their treatment with chemical reagents. In general, raw lignocellulose bio sorbents were modified by various methods to increase their sorption capacities because metal ion binding by lignocellulose bio sorbents is believed to take place through chemical functional groups such as carboxyl, amino or phenolic present in the bio sorbents. More recently, great effort has been contributed to develop new adsorbents and improve existing adsorbents so as to enhance the adsorption capacity of heavy metals from our environment.

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1.1.   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The release of toxic heavy metals in our environment by industries has lead to pollution problems which arises from lack of treatment of industrial wastewater which may contain heavy metals before they are being discharged into water bodies, and these heavy metals can give bad effect to human body and the environment itself. There exist some difficulties in the recovery of metal at low concentration and from wastewater, which is partly as a result of high cost of conventional methods for removal of heavy metals from wastewater.

1.2.   AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this research is to study adsorption of Zn2+ from aqueous solutions using Corn Seed chaff as adsorbent. This aim will be achieved with the following objectives;

  1. Studying the effect of pH on Zn2+, to determine the best pH value for the biosorption of the Zinc metal.
  2. Using the best pH value gotten to study the effect of the biomass load on adsorption  of  zinc  ion, and also to determine  if adsorption of zinc ion using Corn Seed chaff is dependent on the biomass load or not.
  3. Using the best biomass load gotten to study the effect of contact time biomass in terms of percentage removal.
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1.3.   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

Corn waste generated from market women either by roasting, cooking or selling corn which were not properly disposed, helps in the littering of the environment and also leads to blockage of drainages. But the use of grounded corn sheath biomass serves a great purpose in the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution which could also serve as a means of generating funds to the society rather than causing blockage of drainage and littering of environment as a result of its efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution.

1.4.   JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY

Most cities in Nigeria are industrialized and densely populated resulting in indiscriminate useof our natural resources consequently causing serious contamination on aquatic ecosystems, principally due to chemical pollution of organic and inorganic origins especially by organic chlorinated compounds and heavy metals. Among pollutants, the contribution of heavy metals to environment is of major concern because of its toxicity, bioaccumulation, persistence and

Non-biodegradable  nature .The removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater  and  naturally  occurring  waters  remains  a problem both technically and economically. Hence   in recent years, there has been aconsiderable interest in the use of cost effective adsorbents (biosorbents) which studies have shown to exhibit high biosorption capacity. The search for new technologies for removing heavy metals from waste waters directed attention to biosorption, based on the metal binding capacities of various plant wastes such as corn cob, sheath, stalk, sugar cane baggage, rice husk, wheat barns etc. There are many reports and reviews on biosorption of heavy metals ion on corn cob and stalk with varying removal efficiencies, maximum adsorption capacities and binding constants. Among the plant biomass used for biosorption, corn sheath is also an effective waste found in corn. Its capability and capacity to remove zinc metals from aqueous   solutions has  not  been  studied, hence, prompting the need for this study.

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Pages:  42

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF

Chapters: 1-5

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References

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