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Chemistry/Industrial Chemistry

Determining The Element Levels Of Plantain And Banana Leaves Grown In The Reclined Waste Dumpsite Along Akachi Road

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ABSTRACT

Plantain thrive well in waste dump site these waste usually contaminate the soil with heavy mater which become Absorbed by plant especially plantain and banana the risk of heavy metal to toxicity in human is an issue of serious concern globally.

Proximate composition of plantain and road in selected waste dumps site in Owerri Nigeria were determined using energy dispersive X- ray fluorescence spectroscopy in a Standard Analytical technique heavy metals are pb (0.0000) CR (0.0000) NI (0.0528) CU (0.0439) AL (0.5657) ed (0.0000) and AS (0.0000) Concentration and that of their rhizosphere soil were     analyzed with energy dispersive ray fluorescence spectroscopy proximate analysis result revealed that in plantain leaves taken from the control soil K (13.1708) is higher than the dumps site and banana leaf taken from the control soil, (Si) silicon (26.2340) is also they have higher concentration area. The WHO permissible limit. These work has established that the selected dumpsite soils should be discouraged.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION OF PLANTAIN AND BANANA

Plantain and banana belong to one genetical family. They both belong to the family of musa being part of the family musacaea plantain and banana is serves as staple food and fruit; while plantain is cooked and eaten, banana when ripped is eaten as fruit.

Banana and plantain are seen more in the southern and eastern Asia more than any other part of the world. However are grown all over the world in large quantity in India, Egypt Indonesia and tropical region of America. Plantain is bigger in size with it’s thick skin make it larger and tougher than banana the plantain is peech-yellow when unripe in colour, but very dark brown when ripped. The banana is peech-yellow when unripe in colour, but yellowish when ripped. Plantain has more starch than banana and not very sweet when unripe. But sweeter when ripped and cooked, plantain can be boiled or fried.

Plantain and banana are good source of several vital nutrient including potassium; magnesium; vitamin C, fibre, and antioxidant compound.

 

Nutrients Banana Plantain
Calories 89 122
Carbohydrates 23 grams(g) 32 grams (g)
Fibre 3 grams 2 grams
Potassium 358mg 487mg
Magnesium 27mg 36mg
Vitamin C 9mg 18mg

 

They both are healthy source of complex carbohydrates. Plantain contains roughly 32grams of carbohydrate per 100grams serving while banana contain about 23 grams however this amount can vary depending the ripeness of the fruits.

The different is that more of carbohydrates in banana come from sugar where as more of carbohydrate in plantain are from starch.

1.2     HEALTH BENEFIT OF PLANTAIN AND BANANA

  1. Some research indicate that the bioactive compounds in plantain and banana may have Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
  2. Both fruit contain high level of potassium mineral, adequate, potassium intake may help lower blood pressure and reduce heart diseases risk.
  3. Both fruit have fibre content in promoting digestive health
  4. They can also improve blood sugar management and insulin sensitive because of high amount of resistant off starch

VITAMIN C 

POTASSIUM

ANTIOXIDANT

1.3     INTRODUCTION OF PLANTAIN LEAVES

Plantain leaf plantago

Plantain leaf was considered to be one of the nine sacred herbs by the ancient saxon people and has been celebrated in anglo-saxon poetry as the mother of herbs. There are more than 200 species of plantain and nearly as many recorded uses of this herb. Plantain is native to northern and central Asia and Europe. Early colonist brought plantain to north America as one of their favoured healing remedies. Native American called this persistent herb “white man’s foot as it is often found growing along trodden foot paths.

The latins generic name means “sole of foot”. The indigenous Americas adapted many of the traditional European us as for this beneficial herb.

Plantain leaf are broadly ovate or narrow and length like. The dark green leaves have distinct; parallel ribs along their length and are slightly bitter to the taste. Plantain leaf contain high mucilage and tannin and have similar properties. Plantain leaf have high minerals and vitamin C and K and also contain iridoid; glycoside cubin, catapol; flavonoid; and ssilica.

1.4     HEALTH BENEFIT OF PLANTAIN LEAVES

  1. Use to treat eczema and sunburn
  2. Use to treat bronchitis; tuberculosis, sore throat and laryngitis
  3. Use to treat urinary infection and also use to cure rheumatic, pain and digestive problems
  4. Use to draw out the poison of a rattle snake.
  5. Use to treat wounds
See also  Cadmium Sulphide

1.5     BANANA LEAVES

The banana leaf has a religious importance and when we eat on banana leaf the food is considered “Prasad”. In addition serving. Hot food on banana leaf give food a good small enhancing the taste and making healthier and nutritious. The scientific name of banana free is musa belonging to musaceae. It is primarily cultivated in southern Asian countries. Banana leaves may also have medicinal value and are green tubular and spiral about eight feet long; composite of a stalk and lamina.

1.6     NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF BANANA LEAVES

Banana leaves contains phytonutrients with a moisture content of about 60%. The nutrients present in banana leaf are

Nutrients Value % dry matter
Carbohydrate 5%
Fibre 72%
Lignia 5-10%
Hemi-cellulose 6-19%
Pectin 3-5%
Tannins 0.11%
Cellulose 60-65%
Selenium 24.9%
Potassium 11.6%
Calcium 8.0%
Magnesium 1.1%

 

1.7     HEALTH BENEFIT OF BANANA LEAF

  1. It may heal wound
  2. It may heal ulcers
  3. It may have anti-cancer activity
  4. It may have Anti-diarrhea activity
  5. It may enhance digestion
  6. It may act as antioxidants
  7. It may have an antibacterial and anti fungal activity.

1.8     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY ON WASTE DUMPSITE IN         AKACHI ROAD, OWERRI

The waste dumpsite was reclaimed by the state government for the habitation of people. The environment is very good at recycling waste but when the amount of waste generated is far more than the environment can cope with it poses a big threat to life a phenomenon called pollution .

The decay of these solid wastes release substances that can affect the soil nutrient. Content increases the concentration of heavy metal in the soil; Attering the natural balance of nutrient available for plants growth and development thereby affecting species diversity and agricultural production.

Heavy metals are natural component of earth crust. They can neither bedegraded nor destroyed, to a small extent they enter our bodies via food. [14] Same metals such as manganese copper (cu) zinc (zw) and nicked (Ni) are essential or beneficial micro nutrient for plats.

Some heavy metal such as (cd) cadmium and lead (pb) have been known to have no biological important. They are harmful due to the effect on the plant and animals. [32]

Plant in the waste dumpsite heavy metal accumulated higher than the control site.

Solid waste in waste dumpsite could alter the physic-chemical parameter of soil as well as increasing the concentration of heavy metal such as lead(pb) iron (fe) cadmium (cd) and zinc (zn).

It also determined the types of plants growing in the waste dumpsite at Akachi road depending on their subceptibility and tolerance. [22] 

Physico-chemical changes occurred and plant associating with refuse dump.

Plant influences the rate of uptake of various metals in the dumpsite [28]

NICKEL

 CHROMIUM

 CADMIUM C12H10CD

 MANGANESE

 COPPER

 CHROMIUM

 ALUMINIUM

1.9     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Plantain and banana thrive well in the reclaimed waste dumpsite along Akachi road Owerri. These usually contaminate the soil with heavy metals which become  absorbed by the plants. The risk of heavy metals toxicity in humans is an issue of serious concern globally. Akachi road was a waste dumpsite before being reclaimed by the state government for habitation of people.

People living in that area saw the fertility as the boil they start to cultivate plants and crops especially plantain and banana. Plantain and banana are trees like herb belonging to the musacea family. With it high starchy fruits. Plantain and banana  fruit serves as a staple crops in most part of tropic including Nigeria. Plantain and banana fruits have high fibre content which make it a diet for lowering of blood cholesterol and relieving constipation, thereby putting carbon cancer at bay. [24]

Solid waste dumpsite are common features in most urban cities in Nigeria as much as waste is generated by their teeming human population. Plantain and banana is cultivated in strategic location where all sorts of solid waste materials are dumped. Leachates from these dumpsite contribute heavy metal to the soil. [33] Which according to (Ideria et al., 2010). Constitute the commonest occurring group of solid waste dumpsite soil contaminants.

Plantain and banana  growing in such dumpsite Absorbs heavy metal along with their nutrient and accumulates them in it’s fruits. Studies have evealed higher level of heavy metals such as lead ,chromium; nickel; cobalt, cadmium and Asenic. Waste dumpsite soil at Akachi Road than in soil some distance away from them [34] higher concentration of these heavy metals have also been detected in fruit and vegetable harvested from waste dumpsite.  Heavy metal according to (Kabria et al., 2010) are element with an atomic weight greater than 20and are characterized by their similar atomic electronic configuration in the other orbital.

See also  The Study Of Zn2+ Ion Adsorption From Aqueous Solution Using Corn Seed Chaff

1.6     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Aim: Determining the element levels of plantain and banana leaves grown in the reclined waste dumpsite along Akachi Road.

1.10   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Collection of Plantain and Banana Leave Sample

Plantain and banana were collected in a reclaimed waste dumpsite in Akachi road and labeled appropriately for further analysis in the laboratory using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDFXS).

1.11   ANALYSIS OF THE SAMPLE USING ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-   RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY

Analysis done using energy dispersive fluorescence spectroscopy to check the elemental levels of plantain and banana leaves that are being absorb in waste dumpsite along Akachi road Owerri

1.12   PREPARATION OF PLANTAIN AND BANANA LEAVES

plantain and banana  leaves which was taken from waste dumpsite was being washed thoroughly under a running water before air drying for two weeks, to extend the self life of the air dried sample they were further dried in a oven at 1050C for 4 hours to remove the remaining moisture before pulverized using a ken blood blender.

1.13   RESULTING ANALYSIS USING POLLUTION MODEL

In waste dumpsite along Akachi Road Owerri Municipal refuse dump along Akachi road increase heavy metal in ground water source the research evaluated the pollution and risk vicinity of the reclaimed waste dumpsite using standard procedures. The results showed acidic pH values for some ground water dumpsite. Elevated nitrate (NO3) Aluminium (AL) and chromium (cr) concentration above the world health organization (WHO) limit for drinking water sample were recorded in some of the ground water sample for the study Area. The observed strong positive correlation between the metallic contaminant indicated that the distribution of the pollutant has an strong relationship with organic contaminants in the reclained waste dumpsite low contaminate in the reclaimed waste dumpsite. Low contamination factor was exhibited by all metals for individual samples was low; except for sample C with a pollution load index of unity. Elevated hazard quotient>1 and hazard index>1 were observed. This arises from leachate infiltration aided by intense precipitation into surrounding which subsequently contaminate the soil as well as the ground water. [21] This is possible due to vertical and lateral migration of pollution which could threaten the health and life of an organisms. [10]

The consumption of contaminated water could result in the weak erring of human health; heart problem and other health abnormalities. [30] The risk of the onset cancer and skin lesion have been reported in arsenic contaminate ground water. [31]

Studies have also shown as that exposure to constituents off leachates from waste dumpsite above a certain threshold maybe linked to an over abundance of bio accumulated metallic component these component are associated with heavy metal related poisoning symptoms and ailment such as vomiting and convulsion; pneumonia skeletal deformities cancer. [1]

The importance of this study is that developing countries like Nigeria and Africa in general lack adequate supply of potable water due to poor sanitation which result illness and death of many children. [13] Therefore the greater number of population living in urban centres; semi-urban and rural areas in Imo State and Nigeria at large depending solely on underground water sources like boreholes for domestic uses as well as for irrigation and industrial purposes. [19] This is unfortunately due to the in ability of government Agencies to provide pipe borne water to the majority of the households. [36]

1.14   LITERATURE REVIEW

Plantain and banana are in may tropical areas. Plantain are staple food while banana are staple fruit and has more starch plantain and banana are genetically similar; but plantain are primarily cooked. Plantain and banana  are goal source of several vital nutrient including potassium; magnesium and vitamin C; fibre and Antioxidant  compound. They of good source of complex carbohydrate plantain contain 32 grams of carbohydrate while banana contain 23 grams of carbohydrate however this amount can vary depending on the ripeness of the fruits.

Both fruits contain high level of potassium that may help in lowering of blood pressure and reduce heart disease risk and play a role of promoting digestive health because of their fibre content adelitionally plantain and banana contain high amounts of resistant starch which plays, a role in promoting digestive health it can also improve blood sugar management and insulin sensitivity.

1.15   WORK DONE AT WASTE DUMPSITE IN AKACHI ROAD

The contamination as calculated using equation classifies the soil at point of discharge of petroleum product from generally; plant in waste dumpsite at Akachi Road Owerri Imo State as being excessively polluted with cadmium. The waste dumpsite soil had a range of 9.78 to 10.32 mgkg-1 with mean value of 10.0bmgkg-1 while the control site had a range of 7.68 + 08.76mgkg-1 with a mean value of 8.41 mgkg-1 of zn. The concentration of zn at all. Sampling point within the permissible limits given by all the regulating bodies except the limit given by WHO which showed the soil at POD across all sampling location far exceeded the permissible limit of 12 to 60mgkg-1

See also  Carbon Monoxide Emission

Based on the contamination index the soils at POD across all sampling location. They argued that this variation in Cd concentration may depend on the type and composition of waste dumpsite [2] stated that Anthropogenic release of Cd under soil might be as a result to the increase in disposal of Cd containing such as battering in phone and torches; plastic and other electronic gadget to the municipal waste dumpsite  found that the Cd concentration was higher than 0.73mgkg-1 in dumpsite soil in Akachi Road  noted that the average of Pb concentration in dumpsite was 1.18 mgkg-1 and range from c0.001-2.30mgkg-1 in Akachi Road. noted that cadmium uptake was high in acids soil and was reduced when the soil was limed in the present study the soil PH was generally alkaline and could be the soil sample of cadmium concentration were lower in all distances.

In the soil at the various distance from the fecal sludge dumpsite is lower than 122.92 ± 0.06 to 235.75  ± 0.04mgkg Uyo Akwaibom  but higher than 43.37 mg/kg in soil at dumpsite in Enugu State. 13.82 to 17.26 mg/kg in soil at dumpsite in Benue State Nigeria thee different in the concentration of PTE in soil from fecal sludge area and municipal solid waste dumpsite maybe attributed to source of waste dumpsite maybe attributed to source of waste. Composition and length of time the waste has lasted at dumpsite.

The concentration of cu (6.27±0.31 to 31.39 ± 1.04mg/kg)

The soil at the various distance from fecal sludge dumpsite is lower than 2018± 0.1 to 1005.2± 6.0mg/kg in soil [12] but they are higher than 6.68 to 11.4 mg/kg in soil[7] Other heavy metal such as lead; cadmium and mercury are highly toxic even at low concentration [11] the heavy metals concentration in dumpsite soil were lower for Cd; Cu; and Pb than the mean obtained by [20] Which range from 2.25-2.58 2.58-3.30 and 60.00-91.67mg/kg respectively the higher concentration of Ca and Ni in the result than theirs which ranged between 0.42-0.72 mg/kg and 1.91-2.91 mg/kg respectively but our Cobalt concentration was far lower than the values obtained by  Which was 105-810mg/kg.

Heavy metal concentration they soil is known to be related to biogeochemical cycles resulting from the anthropogenic activity such as agricultural; industrial and domestical disposal

The highest concentration of Chromium, arsenic; Cobalt and Cadmium; were detected in soil samples from dumpsite. A which is an age long dumpsite fed with various kind of waste from a popular Uyo urban market. The occurrence of the heavy metals on the soil make them available for absorption by the plant roots [26] Lead is known to be very toxic even at low concentration [27]

1.16   JUSTIFICATION

Plantain and banana thrives well in waste dumpsite. The waste usually contaminate the soil with heavy metals which become absorbed by plantain and banana  the risk of heavy metals toxicity in humans is an issue of serious concern globally. Proximate composition of plantain and banana  leaves gotten from the waste dumpsite in Akachi road Owerri Imo State Nigeria were determined using (EDXFS) energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy; standard analytical techniques while their heavy metals are (Pb) lead Nickel (Ni) copper (Cu) Cobalt (Co) cadmium (Cd) Arsenic (As) and chromium concentration dumpsite soil have higher heavy metals than control soil. Lead was the highest occurring heavy metals on all the dumpsite soil plantain and banana  fruits harvested from the dumpsite had the heavy metal concentrations than those from the control soil. (pb) head was the heavy metal whose concentration in plantain fruit was higher than the WHO/FAO permissible limit.

This work has established that the selected dumpsite soil have been contaminated with heavy metals which have been absorbed by plantain and banana that have been cultivated there.

1.17   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Plantain and banana leaves collection from Akachi road reclaimed waste. Dumpsite in Owerri Municipal Local Government Area.


Pages:  53

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo

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