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The role of vocational guidance in secondary school in Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government, Imo State Nigeria




The general purpose of this study is to ascertain “the role of vocational guidance in secondary school in Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government.” The study has four specific objectives and four research questions. Survey research design was used for the study. The total population comprised of all the public secondary school counselors and commercial school teachers and students in Ahiazu Mbaise L.G.A which is One Thousand, Five Hundred and Seventy-Six (1,576) and the sample size was (194) respondents that were drawn from the study area. 20% of each of the sample schools was used for the study. The instrument for data collection is designed questionnaire modified on a four point like scale of measurement of Strongly agree, Agree, Disagree and Strongly disagree. Data collected from the respondents were tabulated and the scores were recorded. The findings show that that vocational guidance helps students make career choices that are in the line with their interest, aptitude and abilities. Vocational guidance can reduce unemployment by preparing people for the job they can do. inadequate funding of guidance services in secondary schools, students’ negative attitude towards guidance and counseling, inadequate time for guidance services and activities in schools, difficulty in obtaining information from employees of labour and other agencies. The study therefore recommended among others that Secondary school students should be exposed to the importance of guidance services and what counseling is all about in order for them to make good career decision Students should be enlightened through vocational guidance on the available and the right career path to take. This in essence would help reduce the level of unemployment among school leavers. Students should be trained on areas that can lead them to employment. This can be achieved by developing the three domains of the individual, which are the Psychomotor, Affective and Cognitive domains.



Background of the Study

Guidance is an essential tool in student development especially during adolescent stage. Vocational guidance is an aspect of guidance, having focus on the problems relating to vocational life.

Osuala (2004), defined vocation as a term commonly used to mean the type of work one does or occupation one pursues in earning his livelihood. Guidance services are therefore a constellation of services concerned with educational, vocational, personal, social and health aspects; such labeling has been done for practical consideration (Jack, 2015).

Vocational guidance was developed by Frank parsons in the year 1908, a time he was faced with the challenge of giving a name to what he thinks the school should provide as a service to school learners about to go into the world of work. According to Parsons in his both choosing a vocation, a term vocational guidance was referred to the process of assisting people to choose vocation, prepare for it and attain efficiency and success.

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The National Vocational Guidance Association that was set in American in (1924) went on the stated that vocational guidance is regarded as choosing an occupation, preparing for it and entering into it and progressing in it (Agbonigiasede, 2007).

In Nigeria’s case, vocational guidance started formally in 1959 at St. Theresa’s College Oue-Ado in Ibadan by some reverend sisters out of sympathy for the products of their school. They felt that these secondary school leavers would have problems in setting for admission for further studies, looking for employment and adjusting to the hard conditions of the society after leaving school. They then invited some resource persons on various fields on the world of worth and personal adjustment in the society. The necessity of vocational guidance could not be over emphasized then there is need to put in place a mechanism such as guidance and counseling in every educational setting to help meet student’s educational, personal-social and vocational needs.

Vocational guidance according to Wordu, Igweagbara, Gorden and Ahue (2013) is an indispensible segment of vocational technical education programme. Hence, Osuala (2008) saw vocational guidance as a technical education programme effort that involves training and retaining into the different vocational or career categories that are available such as mechanical (automobile and metal work) trades, computer craft practice, wood work trades, electrical/electronic trades, textiles trades, building trade, printing among others.

Vocational Guidance is a process whereby a sluiced of professional counselor assists an individual who is preparing to enter into the world of work to engage in an occupation. In other words, the individual should be enabled to make occupational plans and decisions by himself on the basis of recognizing his personal characteristics in term of aptitudes, ability limitations, interest etc, examining the requirements and characteristics of various occupations as regards academic requirement, qualification, physical requirements of course considering the various occupations in the height of his personal characteristics (Okorikwo, 2011).

It is important to note that effective manpower utilization and course development of any nation presuppose proper and adequate vocational guidance and counseling especially at the post primary school level. This expresses in view of Eni (2007) when he stated the students that were properly and adequately counseled during their secondary school years will be in a better position to follow correct in their academic lives. This shall ultimately, result in more productive and useful citizens. He also held the vocational counseling offers to the students who wish to pursue certain courses at tertiary levels an opportunity to develop their skills, abilities and understanding that will enable them enter, perform and progress in their chosen profession after graduation from school.

This interrelationship that exists between the individual and the society through work according to Onyesiaku (2007) is the major concern of vocational guidance.

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However, the ever-increasing industries/occupational completion and technical innovational as well as the obvious differences in individual needs and characteristics make the adequate vocational guidance apparent. In view of these students ought to be equipped with basic knowledge and information necessary for their realistic occupational choices which will be personally satisfying, socially constructive and economically productive, putting into consideration their aptitude, abilities and limitations, therefore, considering the usefulness of vocational guidance and counseling to the individual and the society (Ezeji, 2011).

Today youths in Nigeria are gearing up in an increasing complicated and fast changing society and the resultant effect is a complex need for personal-social adjustment, economic and vocational awareness among many youths. Adegoue (2004) with the increase in changes in the world of work and opportunities in the society and market, the role of vocational has also increased manifold. People have begun to realize the fact that not all can become engineers, doctors, lawyers, lecturers. Rather they can explore other field that concern with their interest and abilities.

Vocational guidance is essential in secondary schools when the students are not sure about choosing a suitable career option. It is important to know that a person career determines his course of life. While a good decision at the right point in time can make the student’s life pleasant. It is therefore, against this that the researcher seeks to drop investigate on this topic.

Statement of the Problem

The high rate of unemployment among school leavers in Nigeria is a serious issue for concern. It is contended that one of the contributing factors of unemployment among school leavers in the country could be inadequate or lack of vocational or occupational information that will enable them graduate from school to a suitable occupation.

These days, the educational system and the world of work have become very complex, each with many routes. It is also becoming clearer that education and vocation are fundamental and have powerful influence on an individual’s life. It therefore requires that right from the beginning, an individual needs to know how a careful and well guided planning of his or her educational choices can influence his vocational choice and how any appropriate decision will help one function effectively in the world of today.

For a society like ours in Nigeria, vocational guidance is of great importance for national growth and development. In most of our secondary schools, there have been a lot of problems facing vocational guidance which ranges from poor vocational guidance and counselors, services, inadequate facilities and equipments, poor equipments, lack of qualified professional guidance and poor recognition, acceptance and mode of conduct vocational guidance services towards self-reliance.

The above missing links motivated the researcher to examine the role of vocational guidance in secondary schools in Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State.

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 Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to ascertain the role of vocational guidance in secondary school in Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government. The study seeks to:

Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. Determine the extent to which vocational guidance has been able to influence career choice of secondary school students in Ahiazu Mbaise.
  2. Examine the extent to which vocational guidance can practically reduced the level of unemployment among school leavers.
  3. Find out the extent to which guidance counselors in the school are exposed to the required training facilities.
  4. Determine the factors that affect the effective implementation of vocational guidance in secondary schools in Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government Area.

Scope of the Study

The study is limited to selected secondary schools in Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government Area in Imo State.

 Significance of the Study

The study will be significant in the following: students, teachers, guidance counselors, school administrators and future researchers.

The study will help the students to bring about positive change in their behavior, thereby improving their attitudes towards and knowledge towards vocational guidance and its impact in their lives.

The study will provide the teachers with the identification of the needs, interest and difficulties of their students, also to help them make use of the right decision in their career choice.

The study will enable guidance counselors who are experts in the field of guidance and counseling to contribute in the formation and development of a child’s career and proffer better advice to the child.

The study will help administrators to incorporate their training needs in the school curriculum and employ skilled and qualified guidance counselors.

The study will be great benefit to future researchers as a source of references material for their literature.

The findings of this study will equally throw more light on the role of providing adequate guidance service programme to levels of education in the country (primary, secondary and tertiary levels).

Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study

  1. To what extent has vocational guidance been able to influence career choice of secondary school students in Ahiazu Mbaise local Government Area?
  2. To what extent can vocational guidance practically reduce the level of unemployment among school leavers in Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government Area?
  3. What are guidance counselors in the secondary schools in Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government exposed to the required training facilities?
  4. What are the factors that affect the effective implementation of vocational guidance of secondary schools in Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government Area?

    Pages:  62

    Category: Project

    Format:  Word & PDF         

    Chapters: 1-5                                 

    Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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