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The Role Of Head-Teachers In Effective Management Of Public Primary School Resources In Nwangele L.G.A Of Imo State




This study was a descriptive survey designed to examine the role of head-teachers in effective management of public primary school resources in Nwangele L.G.A of Imo state. To effectively carry out the research, relevant literature was reviewed to direct the study. Three research questions were formed to guide the work. The sample population of the study was 49 head-teachers. The instruments for data collection was the researcher’s made four-points rating-scale questionnaires with 15 item statements, which was adequately validated ad found to be reliable. The instrument was distributed personally to the selected respondents and received instantly to avoid loss of copies. The data analysis was done by means of mean rating at 2.5 significant levels. The findings included that: Head-teachers supervise teaching and learning activities in the classroom and assigns subject and class to teachers according to qualification and competence. On their personal management role, the head-teachers identified what motivates his staff as well as communicates effectively with his staff. Keeping accurate financial information about the school and giving true and fair view of the financial position of the school, are the major functions of the school head-teacher in financial management. From the above findings, the following recommendations were made: Adequate provision should be made for prompt/regular payment of teacher’s salary. The supervision of school activities should be encouraged to a great extent. The organization of funds as at when due should be a drive taken serious in running the school.



1.1   Background to the study:

        Education is the vital instrument for social and economic mobility at the personal level and an instrument for transformation of society at the national level. Education clearly denotes instinct worthwhile activities. It is a process of being initiated into knowledge and understanding which in turns regulates the recipient’s attitudes, emotions, wants and actions. Jaiyeoba (2007) defined education as a priority sector in every well-meaning society. She referred it to as a major force in economic, intellectual, social and cultural empowerment. The value of education in bringing about character and attitudinal change rank is as important as its ability to change and reshape human potentials for desired development. Education globally as well as in Nigeria is majorly divided into three levels: the primary, secondary and the tertiary education. The primary education serves as the foundation level of all other education by providing the children with a good preparatory ground for further education. Quadric (2001) cited the National Policy on Education (2004) described primary education as the “education given in an institution for children aged normally between 6 years to 11 years to 12 years.” The primary education level is the key to the success or failure of the whole educational edifice because the rest of the educational system is built upon it. Primary education according to the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) is likened to the key which opens to success or failure of the whole educational system. Akande (2010) reiterated Njoku (2000) regarded primary education as very vital and fundamental to all types of education any person can receive in life.

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Primary education as the focus of this study is the first level of education. Apart from home as the first agent of socialization, primary school is the first place that introduces formal education or literacy to the children. In other words, primary school education is a foundation upon which all other levels of education are built. By implication, whatever happens at this level can either make or mar the entire education sector of a nation. This may be why its administration in the area of curriculum and resources management has attracted the attention of all local and international stakeholders such as PTA, School Basic Management Committee, Nigerian Union of Teachers, United Nation Organization, United Nation, UNICEF, UNESCO, to mention but a few. However, the main focus of the Nigerian Government is to use the Universal Basic Education (UBE) scheme to eradicate illiteracy and thus achieve the goal of education for all in line with JONTIEN Conference of 1990.

There are growing concerns among stakeholders and educational practitioners about the quality of education given to children. Educational practitioners and stakeholders are also lamenting on the fall in the standard of education in the country. There are also calls for the need to revamp the educational sector to address the concerns of the citizenry and comply with millennium development goals (MDGs). These calls gave stimulus to the current educational reforms of the Federal Government. The primary school is the foundation of the formal educational system. However, this very important level of the educational system has been neglected.

The learner is the centre-point of learner-friendly education which starts at the primary school level. Primary school is the fulcrum for all other levels of education. It is therefore important that care should be taken in organizing, coordinating and managing educational activities at the primary school level. Ndu (1991) observed that no nation could produce the kind of citizens that would think creatively and help in solving problems facing humanity without sound primary education. Thus primary education occupies a critical position in the educational sys tem and its importance in the overall national and individual development cannot be overstressed.

The head-teacher occupies the position of the chief executive in school. He or she is the leader of the institution who has a number of staff, both academics and non-academics working under him or her. The head teacher as a leader cannot work alone successfully without the cooperation of the staff. This is so because leadership is a rational attribute which emphasizes on the behavior of the person being led. Olaitan (cited in Ode 1992) defines leadership as “the behavior of the leader functioning vis-à-vis member of a group which is determined by both the leader and the led”. Leadership is therefore followership as corroborated by Okorocha (2012).

In the same vein, Brown (cited in Ode 1992) views leadership as a transaction, a state of total group which is determined by both the leader and the led. Leadership can therefore be seen as the acts that affect others. It gets into the midst of individuals and reacts with behavior already presented in the group. The interaction results into a new activity which may not have been possible without an act of leadership. Hence in studying the leadership role of a head teacher, the focus should be on the behavior of the head teacher as it relates to his staff, students, the community, the primary school as well as the Ministry of Education.

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The concern of this study is not limited to how the head teacher behaves or his administrative roles but how the subordinates perceive his administrative behavior for better school performance. It is this perception that influences the subordinate actions and consequently determined what is referred to as leadership. The present demand for leadership in studies in Nigeria goes partly fro the gigantic investment on education and partly from the faith placed on education. The present National Development plan stresses increased faith in education through increased investment for expansion of educational institutions and increase in enrolment. Leadership in primary school should not be taken for granted. It is a necessary requirement for effective organization and management. Leaderships in education have to become an asset to nation-building and economic productivity. There should be more of educational leadership training than academic training. The educational leaders should acquire the skills and knowledge necessary for leadership in mobilizing the people to work. Specialized training for educational leadership should be seen as sine-qua-non to educational development. As stated earlier, no head teacher can do all the work in the school alone. He need needs the co-operation of other members of staff of his school, students, the community, the primary school Board and the Ministry of Education. The extent he will be able to get their cooperation and assistance depends on the type of leadership styles he adopts. The leadership style may be democratic, authoritarian or laissez-faire.

Resources are assets used to accomplish goals. According to Olson and Defrain (2000), resources are tools, talents and possessions used to create a lifestyle, solve everyday problems and reach goals for better living. Resources are also means to work with, to maintain control over one’s life as well as build one’s lifestyle. Unfortunately, the abundant resources have received little attention in most literatures. This has made it possible for people to underrate the concept Resources and the advantages embedded in them. They are not harnessed or mobilized (Madu, 2006). For this reason, the management of resources becomes imperative, for it is useful in the running of home, schools and trade centres, as many resources are involved in attending to the needs of the individuals, families, community and the nation at large.

In school, management of resources could lead to conducive environment for learning. Management according to Akintunde (2001) is the process by which the goals of the organization are attained by directing the efforts of others in the system. In addition, Abubakar (2008) stated that management process entails the application of four interrelated concepts, planning, organizing, implementing and evaluating the use of resources to achieve goals. The good foundations in the schools are the bedrock of the society which gives rise to a great nation. When a nation is great, people tend to be happy and more productive. Therefore, resources management is of paramount in development which is the context of this study. Hence, the researcher investigates the role of head teachers in effective management of primary school resources in Nwangele L.G.A of Imo state. 

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1.2   Statement of the problem:

        In day-to-day administration of schools, head of schools face myriad administrative problems which militate against the effective running of their schools. These may range from lack of qualified and dedicated teachers, insufficient funding to maintain schools and paying teachers’ salaries and interference by parents. Others include lack of accommodation for pupils and uncooperative attitudes of their school staff. Where the heads fail to arrest these situations, the smooth running of primary schools is compromised. Hence the motivating factors to research on the role of head teachers in effective management of primary school resources in Nwangele L.G.A of Imo state.

1.3   Scope of the study:

        This study covers all the teachers and head teachers in the public primary schools in Nwangele L.G.A of Imo state. It is delved to investigate the roles of head teachers in effective management of primary school resources. The study seeks to find out the role of head teachers toward instructional improvement, financial management, personnel management and the wary forward.

1.4   Purpose of the study:

        The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of head teachers in effective management of primary school resources in Nwangele L.G.A of Imo state. Specifically, the study sought to:


  • Find out the role of head teachers toward instructional improvement.
  • Ascertain the role of head teachers in financial management.
  • Examine the role of head teachers in personnel management.

1.5   Significance of the study:

        This study may benefit students, teachers, secondary education management board, education stakeholders, educational policy makers and the general public in the following ways:

This study may help school heads to see that the allocations in the school budget are spent according to the directives of the government and expenditures should be made in the order of priority. Since the head teacher is not the only teacher in the school, the s study would help him/her to learn how to delegate authority to his staff and encourage them to participate in various activities in the school.

Human resources are essential in schools, the study may help the head teachers to see that all the staff members working in his/her institution are assigned specific tasks and duties and everyone is performing his/her duties satisfactorily.

This study may help the government to plan on how to allocate school resources to primary schools in Imo state.

Lastly, this study may serve as an empirical study and as relevant materials to subsequent researchers who might be carrying out a related topic to this.

1.6   Research Questions:

        The following research questions were posed by the researcher to guide the study:

  1. What are the roles of head teachers towards instructional improvement?
  2. What are the roles of head teachers in personnel management?
  3. What are the roles of head teachers I financial management?

Pages:  67

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF         

Chapters: 1-5                                 

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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