This research is on the problems of using computer as an educational resource by teachers in primary schools in Owerri Municipal Council, Imo State. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The instrument for data collection was a researcher made questionnaire The 20 item instrument adopted the modified 4- point likert scale of SA, A, D, and SD. The sample was 914 students and teachers drawn from the population of 11,551 students and 358 teachers from the public primary schools in Owerri Municipal Council, Imo State through simple random sampling technique. 4 research questions were analyzed. The instrument was validated by experts and reliability co-efficient of 0.93 established using the split half method. Means were used to answer research questions. It was found among others that the schools has no web based training no interest access, no enough computers among others. Computer in education helps teachers to demonstrate experiments and concepts and provides opportunity for individualization of learning. Poor power supply, low computer literacy level of teachers and students among others recommended among others hinders computer usage in school. Based on the finds, the researcher recommended among others that; provision of ICT infrastructure to schools by the government, efforts should be put to ensure a continuous steady supply of electricity, seminars, workshops, conferences to be organized for pre-service and in-service teachers and adequate fund should be allocated for the development of ICTs in schools.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Education opens new horizons for the individual, releases new aspirations and develops new values. It strengthens competencies and develops commitments. Education generates in an individual a critical outlook on social and political realities and sharpens the ability for self-examination, self-monitoring and self-criticism. Amaechi, Anamonye, Onuoha and Okwu(2012), saw Education as a crucial tool for development in every country Furthermore, it is an instrument for the realizations in development of man and modern society that various declarations on education have been made at the modern society that various declarations on education hav e been made at the global level and Nigeria. Primary education is important to national development because it builds on the educational gains of basic education with a view to preparing students for higher learning in tertiary education level. Primary education to today has come of age in this new information revolution. From the time elementary school careers. Technology is now used throughout the world for gathering information, keeping records, distance learning and global collaboration for lifelong learning and work. Its pervasive use cut across almost all aspects of modern life including business, industry, communication and entertainment warrants continued efforts on the part of educators to positively prepare students for participation in a technological world.
The rapid development in information communication and technologies (ICTs) has made tremendous changes in he twenty-first century, as well as affected the demand of modern societies. Recongnizing the impact of new technologies on the workplace and everday life. Today’s educational institutions try to restructure their educational programs and classroom facilities in order to minimize the teaching and learning technology gap between developed and the developing countries. This restricting process is providing learners with knowledge of specific subject areas, to promote meaningful learning and to enhance proffestional productivity (Tomei, 2005). The use of ICTs in Nigeria schools and African countries is generally increasing and dramatically growing. However, while there is a great deal of knowledge about how ICTs are being diffused and used in high schools in developed countries, how ICTs arebeing diffused and used in high schools in developed countries, there is not much information on how information ICTs are being used by teachers not students in Nigerian schools. There is also an assumption that there are wide gaps in the use of ICTs between rural and urban schools (Aduwa-Ogiegbaen & Iyamu,2005).
Over the Nigeria has undertaken educational reforms aimed at rasing the standard of education. Primary system was introduced to equip their graduates with technical and vocational skills while preparing students for higher institions . in view of the infrastructural challenges facing Nigeria’s educational system, ICT use, especially computers and Internet, was introduced to increase access and to improve the relevance of education. Currently the educational reform has introduced general education programe of direct class teaching through the internet. ICT are resources that can be deployed least five levels of ICT use in education: Wbsites today abound where instructors and collaboration and students can visit in order to obtain needed information and interact. This is used in most distance education programs united Nations Institutions for Traning and Research (UNITAR), for instance, uses the internet as a medium to offer traning programs to thousands of public sector workers around the world. The computers have become motivating tools for teaching and learning in schools.
Computer have been used to create electronic libraries and catalogues to ehnace academic research work. According to Heeks (1999), “many libraries now provide online resources to facilitate learning and research electronically” Harkkarainen et al. (2000) reported that ICT is a transformative tool and its full integration into the school system is necessary to prepare students for the information society tey will inherit. The ministry of Eduaction, science and sports implemented education reforms in September 2007 with emphasis on curricum, ICT. Currently, ICT has been incorporated into the school curriculum, beginning with the pre-tertiary institiuions ICT has been incorporated into the school curriculum, timetable from primary to senior high school (Aasmoah, 2008).
The Internet allows cost-effectively information delivery services collaborative and distance educationmore than ever been imagined (Clyde, 1995; Todd,1997). The Internet has myriad websites to help teaches develop or improve lesson plans, exchange ideas, obtain information, and find free animations and simulations to traning, and conference proceeding are published regularly on the web. Chat rooms or forums may become a laboratory for new ideas. Online study resources can also provide interactive tools for effective way of ascertaining student’s understanding of concepts. Students also learn when they work with computers(Koert,2000).
From the early 1990s, education stakeholders in Nigeria have been concerned about how teachers and students use computers in schools and how their use supports learning. Teaching use computers to write lesson plans, prepare materials for teaching, record and calculate student grades, and communicate with other teacher. As such, “computers have become a routine tool for helping teachers accomplish their professional work” (Becker, Ravitz,& wong, 1999). However, many teachers do not facilitate substantial student use of computers for learning activities(Becker, Ravitz,& Wong,1999).
Computer-based test are easier to administer and are quicker to mark.
Researh shows that the use of computers for drill and practice, and for instructional delivery, combined with traditional instruction, result in increases in learning in the traditional curriculum and basic skills areas, as well as higher test scores in some subjects compared to traditional instruction alone (Fouts, 2002).ICT-emhanced learning mobilized tools for examination, conclusion, and analysis of information, providing a platform for student inquiry, analysis, and construction of new information. Learners therefore learn as they do and whenever appropriate, work on real-life problems in-depth, making learning less abstract and more relevant to the learner’s life situation in this way and in contrast to memorization-based or rote learning, ICT-enhanced learning promotes increased leaner engagement (Waston,2002).
Education policymakers in Nigeria have hailed the introduction of ICT in Nigerian high schools as a remarkable step that will contribute to knownledeg product, communication and information sharing among students and teachers in the school system. However, the commitment has government to the provision of infrastructure for ICT policy implementation has been minimal. Without any direct government investments in provision of ICT resources in second cycle schools, “NGOs and donor organizations in particular, have extended ICT facilities to some schools mostly in urban communities”(Dankwa, 1997; parthemore, 2003). Parthemore (2003)points out that many primary schools in Nigeria can now boast of computer laboratories through which students are gaining basic computer literacy. A number of these schools have Internet capabilities, enabling students to deepen their connection to the outside world.
The question to ask is how these students.
According to Haddad and Drexler (2002), an effective teaching /learning process must stimulate intellectual curiosity and offer a sense of enjoyment that will move the students from the passive role of recipients of information to the active role of builders of knowledge . Yet, engaging the leaner in this process can be the most challenging task for teachers. ICTs are effective instructional aids to engage students in the learning process. As learning shifts from the “teacher-centered model” to a “leaner-centered model”, the teacher becomes less the sole voice of authority and the side”. The teacher’s primary task becomes to teach the students how to ask questions and pose problems, formulate hypotheses, locate information and critically assess the information found in relation to the problems based. Students also learn more quickly, demonstrate greater retention, and are better motivated to learn when they work with computers.
At the inception of the millennium, Nigeria’s education authorities embarked on a number of projects to introduce ICTinto the Nigeria education set up; especially at the basic and primary school levels. For instance, in the middle of the 1990s , educational providers realized that Nigerian professional could not complete the global market for jobs because they were limited in skill, especially in the area of information of technology. Subsequently, the authorities incorporated the study of ICTs as part of the study of science.
Teachers with pedagogical proficiency who are ready and willing to transmit knowledge and support students to construct knowledge will normally make a difference in any learning process. In this age of ICT and it integration in the educational system, the role of the teacher, just like in the traditional classrooms, should not be overlooked or underestimated. If teachers possess little knowledge of ICT as is the case of most Nigerian teachers then the (Boakye and Banini, 2008).
It is not just acquiring the knowledge of ICT that is important. Teachers need to understand how to use ICT pedagogically. ICT used appropriately can contribute to the acquisition of skills, deepen learning and contribute to the acquisition of skills needed for learning all life –long for working in today’s job market (Tchombe et al. 2008). However, teachers must have opportunities to develop requisite aptitudes, be able to observe or experience constructive learning, and be motivated. In most countries experience constructive learning, and be motivated. In most countries innovation is thought about, invited into educational practices, and pushed down the throats of teachers without warning or preparation (Maclure, 1997). To make innovations and reforms more meaningful, those who will be most directly affected-in schools, this would be teachers, students, parents and administrators –need to be part of this would be conception and planning process.
This study therefore is on the problems of using computer as an educational resource by teachers in primary schools Etche LGA, Rivers State.
Statement of Problem
The integration of ICT in Nigerian school system is a major step in promoting innovation. Good educational policies are backed with well designed programs which for part of adequate political will on the part of government and educational institution authorities are ineffectively and inefficiently implemented. Thus has led to learners not being adequately exposed to those experiences that will guarantee the total development of their being. At present we have in global village. Around the globe the latest and most complex technology is the area of information and communication technology. The growth in on-line technology and application in education have brought great transformation in the world. The of ICT gadget has made teaching and learning less burdensome effective and result oriented by providing cyberspace for learning, avenue for sharing idea and information. The level of development in any society is usually determined by the quality and quantity of knowledge in the various spheres of human activity available to and acquired by the citizens. Knowledge is acquired and sustained through effective information and communication system based on the technology level attained children in any country who fail to use and master new technologies would definitely lack behind. However , the educational system currently is bedeviled with myriads of problems including lack of adequate computers and other ICTs tools especially in rural schools, poor Internet connections, inadequate manpower, and lack of coherent ICT policy framework. Consequently, there are many constraints in delivering the ICT to the right people at the right time. In developing countries like Nigeria, there is frequently a shortage of qualified ICT teachers, and lack of fund. The rapid changes that have taken place all over the investigates on the problems of using computer as an educational resource by teachers in primary schools in owerri Municipal council, Imo state.
Scope of the study
This study covers all the students in public primary schools in owerri Municipal council, Imo state. It is delimited in finding out the prospects and problems of the performance of primary school students. The study sought of address some variable such as; computer devices available for the teaching and learning in primary schools, role of computer in teaching and learning, problems facing the use of computer in teaching and learning, strategies to be adopted to improve the use of computer in school and the way forward.
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the problems of using computer as an education resource by teachers in primary schools in owerri Municipal council, Imo state. specifically, the study sought to:-
– Ascertain the computer devices available for the teaching and learning in primary schools
– Examine the role of computer in teaching and learning.
– Find out the problems facing the use of computer in teaching and learning
– Identify strategies to be adopted to improve the use of computer in school
1.5 Significance of the study
The researcher hopes that the findings of the study will benefit the following bodies in the following ways;
The result of the study would be of immense benefits to the government. The results of the study would show the devices that are lacking in these institutions so that the government would supply them to the schools.
Schools now will increasingly use ICTs to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of administration. The quality of education will be raised since routine repetitive tasks can be automated with the use of ICT infrastructure.
Through equipping the schools with ICT devices, the learners will have access to a wide range of information resources. This will also enable the teacher to manage a large class effectively and makes the tasks of teaching simplified.
The school administration will be informed of the state of ICT equipment for students’ and teachers’ use for instructional development purposes, whether they are adequate or in deficit. Due to the recommendations that will be made here, teaching large classes and accession of course materials will become a thing of the past.
Students in colleges of education also stand to benefit from the findings of the study when they will begin to interact with technology in the learning process in a way that on graduation, they too can use same in classroom/lesson de liveiy.
This study could be beneficial for student as well as for institutions. The valuable feedback from the students should help student to realize the benefits of internet in their education. Institutes can invest more in internet facilities to enhance the performance of their students and produce better results.
The revelations of the study may be useful for the school admimistrators and library authorities regarding the provision of better Internet facilities for a more efficient use of information sources and services on the Internet for their students.
It will assist in bringing to the fore the internet access challenges faced by the students with a view to guiding the Institution’s policies toward reducing the plight of their students.
Those in the business of providing internet would also be adequately informed of the available ICT opportunities for investment in Nigeria.
Findings from the study would have implications for teacher educators in colleges of education and universities in incorporating training in ICT-assisted strategy in teacher preparation programmes.
Finally, findings of this study will also benefit researchers by adding to the pool of information that already exists in this area. Researchers can therefore fall back on information gathered here by replicating this study in another setting.
1.6 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to guide the study in line with the purpose of the study;
- What are the computer devices available for the teaching and learning in primary schools?
- What are the roles of computer in teaching and learning?
- What are the problems facing the use of computer in teaching and learning?
- What are the strategies to be adopted to improve the use of computer in school?
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