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An Investigation Into Factors That Hinder Effective Teaching And Learning Of Biology In Secondary Schools




 This research focuses on an Investigation into the Factors that Hinder Effective Teaching and Learning of Biology in Secondary Schools. Its Objectives include: To investigate the factors that hinder effective teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools, the roles, quality, methods and techniques of the teachers. The population of study was four thousand two hundred and fifty (4,250) students from the seven Government Secondary Schools in Ehime Mbano Education zone with a sample size of 120 students and eight Biology teachers selected from the four Government Secondary School. The Simple Random Sampling Technique was used and the instrument for data collection is two structured questionnaires (for teachers and for the students). The collected data were analyzed using the mean statistics. In the findings, it was discovered that the teachers of Biology exhibit positive attitude towards Biology as a subject in secondary schools while some students exhibit negative attitude; also a participatory approach to teaching and learning process demand a high level of involvement and commitment on the part of the learner. Also, instructional materials are very essential for effective teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools. Consequently, to enhance effective teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools, it was recommended that adequate instructional materials should be made available to secondary schools by the government; teachers should be paid their salaries as at when due because it will motivate them to put in their best. Also educational authorities should ensure that training measures such as seminars and workshops be held in order to improve their teaching skills.





1.1   Background of the study

Biology is one of the subjects that deal with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Modern biology is a vast and electric field, composed of many branches and sub – discipline. However, despite the broad scope of biology, there are certain general and unifying concepts within it that govern all study and research, consolidating. It into single, coherent fields. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the synthesis and creation of new species. It is also understood for day that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment to maintain a stable and vital condition.

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Students’ performance in this subject area over the years has been very poor, discouraging and disappointing thus they see the subject. Biology as a tough one and too difficult to understand. Now the question is. “Why have students develop such negative attitude towards Biology?” The appropriate answer is that teachers have failed to realize and role of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Biology (Ibezin, 2012).

Biology is an important subject in the secondary school curriculum as it is concerned with the characteristics, classification, and behaviors of organisms, how species come into existence, and the interactions they have with each other and with the environment. Biology encompasses a broad spectrum of academic fields that are often viewed as independent disciplines. However together they address phenomena related to living organisms (biological phenomena) over a wide range of scales, form biophysics to ecology.

All concepts in biology are subject to the same laws that other branches of science obey, such as the laws of thermodynamics and conservation of energy.

Specifically, an instructional material is defined as any item having intellectual content that by design serve as a major tool for assisting in the instruction of a subject or course. Merrian (2012) defined instructional materials as a substance through which a force act or an effect is transmitted.

Babayemi (2006), noted that education has been universally recognized as a powerful weapon to banish ignorance and poverty. As a conscious activity. It has some objectives to be met therefore instructional materials must be used in schools for career understanding of concepts to make teaching and learning activity effective and efficient.

So the teacher factors are related to quality and numerical strength of teachers, their attitudes towards their profession and the type of incentive which should be given to them. Nwosu (2010) mentioned that the qualities of teachers are the qualification which certifies a teacher so as to effectively teach the subject without fear or dismay, while the numerical strength deals with the number of capable teachers who are recruited or employed to teach the subject.

Another factor is the teacher’s attitude according to the Advance learners Dictionary, attitude is a way by which someone thinks, feel, or be have towards some body or something. Enger (2013) also stated that some teachers put up different attitudes when teaching the students to learn. However, attitude could be positive or negative. So when a teacher puts up a positive attitude of teaching, the students will be willing, eager and highly motivated to learn.

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In the aspect of teachers’ incentive, Agulanna and Nwachukwu (2014) sees it as the act of motivating and encouraging the teachers to discharge their duties efficiently. Therefore, it is pertinent that teachers should be well motivated so it will enhance effective teaching process. Students’ factors can be seen as the factors that concern the students. These factors include the students’ interest and attitude Advanced Oxford dictionary sees interest as quality that something has when it attracts somebody’s attention or makes them to know more about it.

Onyejiaku (2010) defines attitudes as readiness, indication, and tendency to act toward internal and external elements in accordance to individual importance. Thorndike (2012) stress that students interest may be attributed to the activities in the environment. Edwin and Effiong (2014) are of the opinion that attitude have a positive and negative effect in the disposition of the students most often, student’s attitude in one way or the other. Influences one’s behavior if certain conditions are present.

Instructional materials serves as aid to the teachers Akude (2014) says that instructional materials are those projected and non-projected materials used in teaching in the classroom. For an effective teaching and learning, the teacher must ensure that the uses of instructional materials are not neglected as they make teaching less stressful as they make teaching less stressful and as well as enable the student / learners to be  able to comprehend the subject matter with ease. Anyaegbu (2013) stress that the problems of secondary school have not only hindered effective teaching of secondary school rather it have demoralized the teachers of this subject. If the teaching materials are not provided, It will cause set back in the effective study of the subject (biology) in school. Iwu (2011) listed some instructional materials in teaching biology, they are as follows textbooks, magazines, newspaper, posters, charts, pictures and chalkboard. This problem has led to the poor performance of Biology students is not a welcoming development for the advancement of education in Nigeria. There is need to identify cause of this poor performance with the aim or objective of solving them. It is our hope that the problem been identified will enable the researcher to make recommendations for possible solutions of the problems.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is obvious that teaching and learning of Biology in our secondary schools in Ehime mbano of imo state have been faced with a lot of challenges. Mostly, one of such challenges is the fact that the performance of SSCE students have not been poised to investigate the factors that hinder the effecting teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools in Ehime mbano L.G.A in Imo State.

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1.3   Purpose of the Study

This work will identify the factors that hinders the effective teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools in Ehime mbano L.G.A in Imo State.

The qualification of the teachers. Their numerical strength (teachers) The general attributes of teachers and students towards the subject (Biology) If the teachers are fully motivated. If there are necessary instructional material put in place for the teaching and learning process of the subject to be effectively taught.

1.4  Significance of the Study

The expectation / result of this study will be useful to the teachers, parents, schools, authorities, students, the Government and society at large. Therefore, having identified the problems, it becomes the sole responsibilities of the teachers to device a means to meet up with the required standard of teaching the subject effectively. Knowing that the attitudes are therefore rose to the point of increasing their own interest and attitudes towards the subjects. This will help the towards the subjects. This will help the school authorities to take good decisions concerning teaching and learning in the secondary schools in Ehime Mbano L.G.A. in Imo State.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The factors hindering the effective teaching and learning of Biology are numerous. But this research will be limited to the quantity and the quality of the teachers, interest, and the availability of instructional materials for teaching in the secondary schools in Ehime Mbano L.G.A in Imo State.

1.6 Research Questions

The following research questions were used to Guide the study.

  1. What is the general attitude of teachers and students to Biology as a subject in secondary schools in Ehime Mbano local government Area?
  2. To what extent is the non-use of instructional materials a factor that hinders the effective teaching of Biology in secondary school?
  3. To what extent is the inadequacy of Biology teachers a factor that hinders effective teaching and learning of Biology?
  4. To what extent are the teachers of Biology motivation a factor that hinders effective teaching and learning of Biology?

Pages:  54

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF        

Chapters: 1-5

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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