Connect with us

Educational Foundations

Modalities For Effective Management Of School Resources In Secondary Schools In Owerri Education Zone

Published

on

Abstract

This study investigated the modalities for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Owerri education Zone. The population of the study comprised all 308 principals and 4217 teachers in public secondary schools in Owerri education Zone. The sample was made up of 120 secondary school principals and 410 secondary school teachers drawn through a multi-phrase sampling technique. The study was a descriptive survey design. The instrument for data collection was Effective Management of School Resources Questionnaire (EMSRQ). Four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The major findings showed that ways funds can be effectively managed in secondary schools were: Education Board having financial regulations guiding the spending of funds and school budgets guiding the expenditure of principals. Procurement and maintenance of physical facilities and equipment through internally generated funds were modalities for effective management of school plant. Posting qualified teachers to schools and provision of sufficient number of teachers to handle the subjects were modalities for effective management of personnel in secondary schools. Modalities for effective staff motivation in secondary schools were regular payment of salaries and allowances, good working environment, research grants and sponsorship to conferences and workshops. The opinions of secondary school principals and secondary school teachers did not differ significantly with regard to the modalities for effective management of school resources in secondary schools. Based on the findings, it was recommended that there should be educational policies guiding the management of school resources; Government should make funds and instructional materials available to secondary schools.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Education is the process by which society through schools deliberately transmits its cultural heritage (accumulated knowledge, values and skills) from one generation to another.

Education as an instrument of change plays a very important role in both developed and developing countries of the world (Ikuemenison, 2003). Through the ages, education has been known to be the antidote to poverty and ignorance and the key for unlocking natural resources (Obaji, 2006).  This shows that the vital role of education is the transformation of the society to ensure an improved standard of living. Such crucial transformation depends mainly on the quality of instruction learners received. The learners are likely to give back what they have learnt when exposed to the world of work (Mkpa, 1989).                                                                                                                                 Therefore, if economic development in Nigeria is to be achieved and sustained, productive and sustainable education among the youths should be established and pursued vigorously.

The  Federal  Republic  of  Nigeria  in   her  National  Policy  on        Education               (2004) considers education as an instrument par excellence for affecting national development. This

National Policy on Education spelt out national educational aims and objectives as:

The inculcation of national consciousness and national unity.

The inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society.

The training of the mind in the understanding of world around and The acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competences as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004: 8).

Effective implementation of the national policy therefore will enhance the success of the Nigerian educational system. Ugwu (2007) states that any policy of developing countries is viewed in terms of its contribution to national development and this does not in any way mean that all policies result in measurable and remarkable national development. Awaritefe (1988) supported this view by stating that majority of the products of Nigerian education system are not well equipped and therefore lack confidence to undertake self-employment in technical and other productive vocational careers. The above assertions mixed with the global technological advances show that there is need to take a critical look at the resources in educational system in Nigeria. This is important since the quality of instruction given to trainees depends on the quantity and quality of resources available. Osuala (1987) postulate that the indispensability of learning resources in the realization of the objectives of National Policy on Education has been emphasized in many literature.

See also  Management Of Primary Schools By Local Government Education Authorities In South East, Of Nigeria

School resources are devices, methods or experiences used for teaching purposes, including textbooks, supplementary reading materials, audio-visuals and other sensory materials used for effective teaching and learning (Onyejemezi, 1981). That is to say, school resources are those resources that enhance teaching and learning processes. They include all materials and equipment used in connection with teaching and learning.

School resources are classified into financial resources, school plant resources, personnel resources and motivational resources. Financial resources are those resources that are concerned with the planning and controlling of an organizational activities (Pandey, 1995). This shows that financial resources are concerned with decision on how to procure, expend and give account of funds provided for the implementation of the programmes of the organization. Onwurah (2004) defines school plant as the school building, the play grounds and the equipment and other material resources provided to school to facilitate teaching and learning operation. In other words school plant are material resources that facilitate effective teaching and learning in the schools. Aghenta (2000) defines personnel resources as human beings that function to aid teaching and learning including classroom teachers, subject teachers, members of administrative staff, cooks, cleaners and security personnel in the school. This implies that personnel resources are human beings that operate in the school.

Motivational resources are those phenomena which are involved in the stimulation of action towards a particular objective (Chuahan, 1988). Therefore motivational resources can be defined as those resources which energize a person to do something.

Educational management is a variety of sequential and related activities designed and carried out in order to effectively and efficiently meets the goals of teaching and learning (Nwadiani, 1998 and Adeyemi, 2004). Thus educational management is concerned with the planning and formulation of educational policies for the purpose of achieving educational goals.

Any school organization that wants to achieve its objectives should incorporate sound and effective managerial modalities for managing and utilizing its limited resources. Modalities are defined as strategies which are referred to as a general programme of action implying commitment of emphasis and resources to attain broad objectives of the organization (Inyang, 2002). Modalities can be seen as those procedures or strategies adopted for managing and organizing human and material resources to attain the goals of the organization. Modalities can be described as well planned series of action or procedures through which the available resources are managed and utilized to achieve the objectives of the organization. Such procedures include planning, organizing, co-ordinating, stimulating, evaluating, and motivation.

 

Management of resources is the effective and efficient use of resources in an organization in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. Wikipedia (2008) defines management of resources as the efficient and effective deployment of organization’s resources when they are needed. This means that management of school resources is an intellectual demanding job of the school administrator/manager, principal and teacher therefore requires combined talent and activities of an educational management. In the management of school resources, the key players are the teachers, the principals and the government (Igboabuchi, 2007).  The principals and teachers play very important roles in the management  of  school  resources.    The  principal  should  manage  wisely  the  resources available to him to obtain the stated objectives of education.  The principal in his managerial modalities  provides  the  enabling  environment  where   teachers  operate  and                   where       the community is involved in the school affairs.  According to Egwunyenga (2002) the tasks of the   school   principal   include,    provision   of    instruction   and    Academic           leadership, responsibilities to staff, responsibility to students and financial responsibility.  The teachers represent the model before the students.       Their nature, qualifications and organizational abilities seriously affect their managerial modalities.   Igboabuchi (2007) observes that the shaping of the destines of future generations of citizens is put in their hands and this is an enormous   responsibility.   However,    it   is   pathetic   to    find    out    that   most school administrators/managers, principals and teachers do not consider it necessary to adopt proper modalities for effective management of school resources.

See also  The Strategies For Minimizing Of Cultism In Secondary Schools: A Case Study Of Ihiala Local Government Area Of Anambra State.

The researcher’s experience shows that most school resources in some secondary schools in Owerri education zone are poorly utilized for the purpose of which they were supplied. Some imported machines are found lying waste and beaten by the sun and rain where they are dumped outside for years (Agoha, 2008). Anioke (1997) also observed that in most schools, the introductory technology workshops are permanently closed down and the installation confined and left alone to rust. These installations are subjected to vandalization and theft due to non-use.

Most laboratories have been noted to be under utilized leaving the costly equipment and reagents to waste as a result of disuse, while students are constantly denied the opportunity of utilizing the resources provided by the government. As a result of wastage in resources, students pass out of schools with theoretical knowledge (half-baked knowledge) that cannot be used in the world of work (Mamah, 1999:4-5).

Dilapidated buildings, broken chairs, desks and tables, broken windows and roofs, blown off roofs and bushy surroundings and cracked walls are some common phenomena in most secondary schools in the zone. Ogbonnaya (2002) found out that most secondary schools in Abia State have dilapidated structures including broken roofs such that teachers and students do not have comfortable classroom for effective teaching and learning. Based on a close interaction between the researcher and some of the school administrators/managers, principals and teachers, it is certain that greater number of these administrators/managers, principals and teachers do not make adequate efforts to manage the existing resources due to apathy while some show concern over the deteriorating state of their school resources and the effort they have made to manage these resources. Some constraints to the management of school resources are inadequate fund, inadequate school plant, personnel related factors and lack of motivation. Inadequate fund has been the key handicap towards effective management of school resources. Odor (1995) recognized that capital resources allocation to education is low compared with the competing needs. Lack of school plant or their inadequacy constitutes a constraint to management of school resources. Ogbonnaya (2004) observed that most educational institution in Nigeria have inadequate school building, teaching aid and equipment. Personnel related factors such as lack of qualified and experienced staff hinder management of school resources. Akwam (2002) noted that lack of qualified and experienced staff hinder effective use and management of school resources. Lack of motivation hinders management of school resources. Enyi (2004) observes that people naturally hate to be ordered by their leader instead they prefer to be motivated. Based on this background, the study therefore, was undertaken to investigate the modalities for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Owerri education zone.

Statement of the Problem

Management of school resources in secondary schools in Owerri education zone have not been looked into. To this effect, constant vandalization, wastage and disuse of educational equipment and installations, dilapidated buildings, broken chairs and tables, cracked walls, blown off roofs and bushy surroundings become some common phenomena in the secondary schools. The increasing rate of poor science and technical skill acquisition among secondary school students also tend to raise doubts in the possibility of achieving the objectives of the National Policy on Education.

Educational resources have been the indispensable tools in teaching and learning, but research efforts were not channelled toward identifying the modalities for their effective management. Although the poor management of educational resources in secondary schools are spread and quite alarming, much efforts have not been put toward the identification of the modalities for effective management of school resources. These pathetic conditions of management of school resources in secondary schools in this zone have become the major concern of school administrators, managers, principals, teachers, students and the general public. This is because if the situation is not well addressed, the school environment will become unfavourable for effective teaching and learning processes. The problem of this study, therefore was to explore the modalities for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Owerri education zone.

See also  Comparative Analysis Of Achievements Of Students Taught French Reading Comprehension With Cooperative Learning And Communicative Language Teaching In North West Region Cameroon

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study was to investigate modalities for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Owerri education zone.

Specifically, the aim of the study was to:

  1. Find out ways in which funds can be effectively managed.
  2. Identify modalities for effective management of school plant.
  3. Investigate modalities for effective personnel management in secondary schools.
  4. Determine modalities for effective staff motivation.

Significance of the Study

This study identified the modalities for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Owerri education zone. The result of this study is of great importance to principals, teachers, government, ministry of education officials, curriculum planners, policy makers, students, all stakeholders and researchers.

The findings of the study will sensitize the principals and teachers on the need to adopt result oriented modalities towards the effective management of the existing school resources so as to ensure their maximum utilization and benefits. It will provide useful information to principals and teachers who may be ignorant in management of school resources. The knowledge and implementation of these modalities will make them competent principals and teachers.

This study will also enable government, ministry of education officials, curriculum planners, policy makers to know the modalities for effective management of school resources and device ways of improving on them. They will realize the constraints to management of school resources and organize workshops to educate newly appointed ignorant principals and teachers on how to manage their school resources.

The students will also benefit from this study. This is because they will know the advantages of using proper modalities for the management of school resources in secondary schools.

All stakeholders, the community and everybody that is associated with the school will benefit from this study. It will enable them to be aware of the modalities for effective management of school resources. This will sensitize them to participate actively in the management of school resource programmes of the school

Finally, it will serves as a poll of data for researchers whenever they are carrying out studies on effective management of school resources. This provides them direction and guideline for their study.

Scope of the Study

The study focused on the investigation of the modalities for effective management of school resources in secondary schools in Owerri education zone. The study was restricted to the content areas of investigation which include:

  1. Ways in which funds can be effectively managed.
  2. Modalities for effective management of school plant.
  3. Modalities for effective personnel management in secondary schools.
  4. Modalities for effective staff motivation.

Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. In what ways can funds be effectively managed in secondary schools?
  2. What are the modalities for effective management of school plant in secondary schools?
  3. What are the modalities for effective personnel management in secondary schools?
  4. What are the modalities for effective staff motivation in secondary schools?

Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

  1. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of secondary school principals and secondary school teachers with regard to the ways funds can be effectively managed in secondary schools.
  2. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of secondary school principals and secondary school teachers with regard to the modalities for effective management of school plant in secondary schools.
  3. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of secondary school principals and secondary school teachers with regard to the modalities for effective management of personnel in secondary schools.
  4. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of secondary school principals and secondary school teachers with regard to the modalities for effective motivation of staff in secondary schools.

Pages:  92

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF        

Chapters: 1-5

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

Advertisement
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Advertisement

Project Materials

IMSU Info contains over 1000 project material in various departments, kindly select your department below to uncover all the topics/materials therein.

Trending