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Knowledge And Perception Of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care In Nwaorieubi Health Centre Mbaitoli Lga

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ABSTRACT

Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH) is a condition in pregnancy where a normotensive woman develops a high blood pressure of about 140/90mmH after 20th week of gestation. The primary aim of this study was to ascertain the knowledge, and perception of pregnancy induced hypertension among pregnancy women attending antenatal care in Nwaorieubi Health Centre in Mbaitoli LGA. The result of the study was significant to the pregnant women, health personnel, and society and future researchers. Four objectives and four research questions were formulated by the research which served as a guide for data collection. Descriptive research method was used and the sample size involved 100 pregnant women who attended antenatal care in IMSUTH using simple random sampling technique with replacement. Close ended questionnaire were administered and analyzed. The study showed that there is 30 (30%) incidence of PIH. 81 (81%) is knowledgeable about PIH, about 71(87.7%) of the respondents believed that PIH could be treated in the hospital and 72 (88.9%) said it could be prevented. The study showed that there is good knowledge, positive attitude towards pregnancy induced hypertension. The study recommended that government should establish more health center in the rural areas so that pregnant women will have access to health facilities which will discourage them from going to traditional birth attendants for their treatments. The researcher suggested that a similar study should be carried out in their hospitals and health centers so as to poor knowledge and negative attitudes of pregnancy induced hypertension and also reduce maternal deaths.

Keywords: Knowledge, perception, pregnancy, induced hypertension.

CHAPTER ONE

  •   INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of Study

Pregnancy is a normal phenomenon every woman undergoes. Hypertension does not exist in women naturally but contains factors among others which include stress, heredity, obesity and pregnancy. When hypertension occur due to pregnancy, it usually starts after 20 weeks of gestation and frequent occurrences are often seen at term and this is called pregnancy induced hypertension. Recent figures indicate that globally, 629,000 women die due to pregnancy induced hypertension each year. The effect of mental death on house income, household productivity and household disintegration has been widely described (Jones, 2010). More so, maternal deaths cause one million children to become motherless annually. Therefore concern for the significant mortality and morbidity associated with pregnancy induced hypertension is prominent on global health agendas (Ojo & Briggs 2011).

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Maternal deaths could be prevented if woman were able to have adequate knowledge and positive attitude towards utilization of antenatal services, refraining from their diabolic practices and then, utilize high quality antenatal services especially when complication arise (Calder & Dunlop, 2010). In recent times, they have been a lot of complications arising from child birth higher incident in developing countries. Oyira, Mgbekem and Okon (2010) said that World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that one out of every 22 women in Africa die from pregnancy related complications many complication as a result of pregnancy, some of them pre-existing and worsen with pregnancy itself and normally stop as soon as pregnancy is over. The incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension varies from country to country. This is as a result of lack of knowledge, attitude towards pregnancy induce hypertension (PIH) in pregnant women as many of them who attend antenatal clinic in Nwaorieubi Health Centre in Mbaitoli Local Government Area (L.G.A) are seemingly diagnosed as having PIH. It has recorded that pregnancy are rising from pregnancy. It occurs more frequently in young primigravida and mothers over 35 years of age (Calder and Dunlop, 2010).

Fraser and cooper (2012) stated that pregnancy induced hypertension is known to be associated with hydatiform mole, multiple pregnancy and maternal condition where there is a greater mass of placental tissue. Although, according to them, the exact nature of the primary event causing pregnancy induced hypertension is not known but evidence accumulated over the past few years indicate that abnormal placentation may be one of the initial events in the disease process. the researchers interest on PIH was stimulated while on clinical placement in antenatal clinic in Nwaorieubi Health Centre in Mbaitoli L.G.A. through observation and interaction, she discovered that some pregnant women who did not record any hypertensive conditions in their non pregnant status and neither at their initial booking records, are having raised blood pressure proteinuria after 20 weeks of pregnancy. This promoted the researcher to design this study to determine the knowledge and attitude of pregnancy induced hypertension among pregnant women attending antenatal care in N Nwaorieubi Health Centre in Mbaitoli L.G.A.

1.2   Statement of Problem

Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), also known as gestational hypertension, is a grave concern within the realm of maternal and neonatal healthcare. It stands as a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality globally. In the context of Imo State, Nigeria, this issue becomes even more pertinent due to the state’s unique socio-economic and healthcare landscape.

Despite the known perils associated with PIH, there is a palpable dearth of understanding among the pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State. The problem, at its core, lies in the lack of awareness, understanding, and accurate perception of this condition among the very individuals who are at risk, namely the pregnant women themselves. This knowledge gap exacerbates the already challenging healthcare situation in the state and leaves a multitude of expectant mothers susceptible to grave health risks.

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Firstly, there is a striking lack of awareness regarding the existence of PIH among pregnant women in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State. PIH is often a silent condition, presenting with symptoms that may be attributed to the normal discomforts of pregnancy. Calder and Dunlop (2010) asserted that the absence of early recognition of hypertension in pregnancy can lead to delayed medical intervention, with potentially catastrophic consequences for both the mother and the unborn child.

Secondly, understanding the risk factors and symptoms associated with PIH is fundamental for timely intervention. However, there is a glaring deficit in knowledge among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State regarding these critical aspects. Without the ability to recognize the signs and symptoms of PIH, these women are at a severe disadvantage when it comes to seeking medical attention promptly.

Thirdly, the perceptions and attitudes of pregnant women in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State towards PIH significantly impact their healthcare-seeking behavior. It is crucial to understand their perceptions, fears, and beliefs concerning this condition. If misconceptions or fears prevail, it can deter women from seeking timely medical care or adhering to recommended preventive measures and treatments.

Lastly, Andrea and Landi (2012) had stated in their article that demographic factors such as age, education, and socioeconomic status are recognized determinants of health knowledge and perception. An exploration of how these factors influence awareness and understanding of PIH among pregnant women in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State is vital. Such insights can help in designing targeted interventions that account for these variations and ensure equitable access to crucial healthcare information.

In light of these multifaceted issues, this research project aims to delve into the knowledge and perception of PIH among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State. By identifying the root causes of knowledge gaps and misconceptions, the study endeavors to contribute to the development of targeted interventions and educational programs aimed at improving maternal health outcomes, reducing the burden of PIH in the state and ultimately safeguard the lives and well-being of both mothers and their unborn children in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State, Nigeria.

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1.3   Objectives of the study

The purpose of this study is to investigation the knowledge and perception of PIH among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Nwaorieubi Health Centre in Mbaitoli L.G.A. Specifically the objective is set to:

  1. determine the level of knowledge of pregnancy include hypertension among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Nwaorieubi Health Centre in Mbaitoli L.G.A.
  2. ascertain the views of pregnant women towards pregnancy induced hypertension.
  3. identify the causes of pregnancy induced hypertension.
  4. determine the preventive measures of pregnancy induced hypertension adopted by pregnant women.

1.4   Research Questions

  1. What is the level of knowledge of pregnancy induced hypertension among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Nwaorieubi Health Centre in Mbaitoli L.G.A.?
  2. What are the views of pregnant women towards pregnancy induced hypertension?
  3. What are the causes of pregnancy induced hypertension?
  4. What are the preventive measures of pregnancy induced hypertension adopted by the pregnant women?

1.5   Significance of the Study

The result of this study will be beneficial to the pregnant women, health personnel, society, and future researchers.

  • The information that will be obtained from the study will enable the health team in providing evidenced based health talks to general society and particularly the pregnant women with accurate information that will help in changing their seemingly negative attitudes about pregnancy induced hypertension
  • It will also help in enlightening the general public particularly the folk about preventive practices that will reduce pregnancy induced hypertension among pregnant women.
  • Other researchers will borrow a leave from it.
  • The government could use it to make policies and provide better resources to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate from it.

1.6   Scope of the study

The study was delimited to Nwaorieubi Health Centre and to the antenatal section of Nwaorieubi Health Centre in Mbaitoli L.G.A. it was further delimited to the pregnant women particularly those who attend antenatal clinic at Nwaorieubi Health Centre in Mbaitoli L.G.A.

1.7   Operational Definition of terms

  • Knowledge: Generalized body of laws and theories to explain a phenomenon or behavior of interest that are acquired using the scientific method.
  • Perception: The organization, identification, and interpretation of information in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment.
  • Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: Hypertension that occurs after 20 weeks of gestation in women with previously normal blood pressure.

    Pages:  66

    Category: Project

    Format:  Word & PDF               

    Chapters: 1-5                                          

    Source: Imsuinfo

    Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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