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Influence Of Institutional Factors On The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Economics In Owerri Municipal Council Of Imo State

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ABSTRACT

The study investigated the effect of institutional factors on the academic performance of secondary school students in economics in Owerri municipal council of Imo State. The systems theory formed the theoretical framework for the study. Three research questions were posed. The design used was the survey type. Three hundred and six teachers and two thousand two hundred and thirty-three students in 7 public secondary schools in Owerrimunicipal council formed the population of the study. A sample size of one thousand two hundred and seventy-twowas used. This number was sampled using the cluster sampling technique through balloting. The instrument used was the Institutional Factors and Academic Performance of Students in Economics Questionnaire (IFAPSEQ). The reliability of the instrument was ascertained through the use of test retest techniques. Frequency distribution mean and pooled mean were used to answer the research questions. The findings indicated that there were not enough and qualified teachers in secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council. It also indicated that provision of facilities was not made adequate in secondary schools in Owerri municipal council. The third finding showed that provision of instructional materials was inadequate and these have contributed to the poor performance of students in economics in Owerri municipal council. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that government should recruit more qualified teachers, procure more facilities and instructional materials while the already existing teachers should ensure to upgrade their qualities for effective performance.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

An institution can be referred to as a system. As a system, is a conglomerate of interrelated and interdependent parts that share mutual interaction within and outside the system each working towards the achievement of the set objectives/predetermined objectives. Ukeje, Okorie, and Nwagbara (1992) explained that institutions can be viewed as systems of interdependent parts that interact with one another and must interact with the broader external environment within which the institution exists.

Secondary school education forms part of the system of education in Nigeria. The Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) stated that it is a level of education between the primary school education and the tertiary one. Any kind of malfunctioning at this level of education tends to affect the education system adversely. According to Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) in the National policy of education, the broad aims of secondary education within the overall objectives are preparing students for useful living within the society and preparing them for higher education. Precisely, the aim of secondary education is to provide opportunity for qualitative education for primary school leavers, cater for the differences in talents of the pupils, develop Nigeria cultural heritage, produce a generation of people who respect the dignity of labour, foster Nigerian unity and to inspire its students with the desire for achievement and self improvement both at school and in later life. Better performance in this level of education is the bedrock of any education system. It is envisaged that a number of factors contribute to students’ better performance. These factors as outlined by Anyanwu (2009) include the quality of teachers, instructional methods and materials, and students’ socio-economic background.

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Better performance in academics is what any society would hope on their students for in other to attain the level of development envisaged. In fact, it is the sole aim of sending children and wards to school as it guarantees functionality. The secondary school education is so essential that it is to a large extent determines the pace at which any nation develops. Academic performance according to Nwokocha and Nmadike (2005) is the yardstick for testing educational quality of a nation. Hence, it is expedient to maintain a high performance in internal and external examinations. Generally, high academic performance is the center piece of any formal education system. However, it is expected that the heavy burden of having a child go through the formal education is for the child to perform maximally. This performance portrays that the right knowledge, values and skills have been well transmitted into the younger generation.

Regrettably however, information gathered showed that the performance of students of secondary school education level is not meeting the expected standard. Anyanwu (2009) observed that the academic performance of secondary school students in examination generally and senior school certificate examination in particular does not seem to be as good as expected. He further stated that students do not seem to attain the required credit grades to earn them admission into courses in the universities especially in the sciences. Confirming this information, Alike (2009) says that several reports have been made on poor academic performance of students in both internal and external examinations.

However, the issue of low academic performance is not what a society will hope for, as it projects efforts in futility. This informs why poor academic performance becomes a source of worry to all stakeholders. Although, the incidence of poor academic performance appears to be more common in public secondary schools, private secondary schools are not free from the declining trend. Concerted efforts however, have been made at investigating trends of students’ performance and achievement in secondary schools as well as factors responsible for the level of their performance and achievement. For a school to demonstrate a high standard of achievement in academics there is need to have a well defined set of institutional factors.

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Institutional factors are those school resources that enhance effective teaching and learning. Institutional factors are classified as teacher, facilities and instructional materials. Academic performance is how well a student meets standard set by government and the institution itself, Ehow (2011). Teacher is a person that impact information, knowledge, and skill to the learner. Facilities are resources that provide enabling environment for effective teaching and learning. Instructional materials are teaching aids which include textbooks, maps, diagrams, pictures etc. that are required for effective teaching and learning.

It is common knowledge that from the secondary school level, children are raised to face challenges of human existence. The ones that have the aptitude for higher education heads towards tertiary institutions while those that are inclined to trading, and other crafts and skills head towards their identified areas. This informs why this level of education should not be taken for granted. Regrettably however, information gathered showed that the performance of the students of this level of education is not meeting the expected standard. Anyanwu (2009) said that the academic performance of secondary school students in examination generally and senior school certificate examination in particular does not seem to be as good as expected. He further stated that students do not seem to attain the required credit grades to earn them admission into courses in the universities especially in the sciences. Confirming this information, Alike (2009) says that several reports have been made on poor academic performance of students in both internal and external examinations. Ojerinde (2004), Okafor (2005), and Ale (2005) supported this assertion. From the ongoing, it has become obvious that the target for the establishment of this level of education will be hard to reach. In specific terms, this study was undertaken to determine the extent to which institutional factors will influence students’ academic performance in economics in secondary schools.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

It is common to hear stakeholders of the education industry namely, parents, teachers, government, examination bodies and even students themselves express worry over the performance of students both in external and internal examinations. In economics examinations like WASSCE, NECO and NABTEM, a greater percentage of students fall below credit level thus missing the opportunity of gaining admission into institution of higher learning. Several factors have been attributed to the performance of secondary schools students, some of these factors are traceable to government, parents, teachers, students, the school community etc. The problem of this study revolves around institutional factors thus the problem of the study posed as a question is: How do institutional factors influence academic performance of secondary school students in economics in Owerri Municipal Council?

1.3     Scope of the Study

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This study focused on the influence of institutional factors on the academic performance of secondary school students in economics. It focused on such institutional factors as teachers, facilities, and instructional materials. The extent to which these factors affected the academic performance of secondary school students in Owerri municipal council remains the coverage of this study.

1.4     Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of some institutional factors on the academic performance of secondary school students in economics in Owerri municipal council. In specific terms, the study seeks to:

  1. Ascertain the extent to which availability of teachers affected the academic performance of secondary school students in economics in Owerri Municipal Council.
  2. Find out how effective the availability of facilities could be in determining the academic performance of secondary school students in economics in Owerri Municipal Council.
  3. Establish a relationship between the availability of instructional materials and academic performance of secondary school students in economics in Owerri Municipal Council

1.5     Significance of the Study

A study on institutional factors and academic performance of secondary school students in economics is going to benefit the society immensely. It benefits will stem from the fact that awareness has been created on the institutional factors that have been contributing to poor academic performance of the students’ hence remedial measures will be taken to improve the students’ academic performance. Benefits that could be derived from this study include: it revealed to the government those institutional factors that can influence academic performance of students thus guiding them on how to manage them so as to minimize their negative influences.

The study helped the students to improve on the negative influences of the institutional factors. It helped the teachers and school managers to understand the negative influences of the institutional factors thus equip themselves properly to minimize those negative influences. Parents have been made to know the negative influences of the institutional factors so as to be better enabled to give their children meaningful advice on how to tackle the negative influences.

1.6     Research Questions

To guide the investigation, three research questions were posed.

  1. What is the relationship between the availability of teachers and academic performance of secondary school students in economics in Owerri Municipal Council?
  2. What influence has availability of facilities on academic performance of secondary school students in economics in Owerri Municipal Council?

3.       What is the relationship between availability of instructional materials and academic performance of secondary school students in economics in Owerri Municipal Council?


Pages:  73

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo                                     

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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