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Influence Of Family Background On The Academic Performance Of Basic School Students In Aniocha South Local Government Area Of Ogwashi-Uku, Delta State




The study examines the influence of family background on the academic performance of Basic School Students in Aniocha South Local Government Area of Ogwashi-Uku, Delta State. The numerous task played by the parent and effect of family factor exert in the education of the pupils were explored. Questionnaire was used for data collection and simple percentage was used for data analysis. The five Research Questions formulated were tested. The result showed that the non-provision of educational materials affect students’ academic achievement, parents educational background affect students’ academic performance, the size of the family affect the academic performance of student, socio-economic level of parents has nothing to do with students’ academic performance and parental non-motivation of students affects the students’ academic performance. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that school counselors should be employed in all schools and that they should provide necessary educational materials to enhance teaching, learning. Assistance should be given to student especially those that lack love, warmth and encouragement so as not to feel inferior among their mate and to become academic achiever and live their lives meaningfully.



 Background to the Study

Over the years, the investigation of the factors that influence academic achievement of students have attracted the interest and concern of teachers, counsellors, psychologists, researchers and school administrators in Nigeria. This is because of the public outcries concerning the low standard of education in the country and the breeding of graduates with little technical know-how has resulted in serious setbacks to the industrial development of the nation. Education is a very powerful instrument for social change in any nation. The philosophy of Nigeria education as stated in the National Policy of Education (1981) is based on the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizens and equal educational opportunities for all citizens of the nation at primary, secondary and tertiary level, both side and outside the formal school system.

The aims and objectives of the National Policy on Education include the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity; the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competence both mental and physical for the individual to live and contribute to the development of his society. Different factors are capable of influencing the poor/low academic performance of students. Such factors may be the students’ internal state (intelligence, state of health, motivation, anxiety etc.) and their environment (availability of a suitable learning environment, adequacy of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well equipped laboratories). Investigation of these factors has produced several finds by researchers. For example, Clemens and Oelke (2009), and Emeka  (2003), have attributed the causes of poor academic achievement to a combination of personal and institutional factors. Personal factors relates to the individual’s intelligence, knowledge and ability, while institutional factors are family or parental influence, societal influence, institutional influences and school related factors-student lecturer report, teacher related factors, accommodation and living conditions. In the same vein, Wiseman (1999), Sogbetan (2002) and Hassan (2000) among other have examined the causes of poor academic performance among the basic school students. Some of the factors identified are intellectual ability, poor study habit, achievement motivation, lack of vocational goals, low self-concept, low socio-economic status of the family, poor family structure and anxiety. The consequences of these include indiscipline in school and low level of educational standard.

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A daily sketch publication on “causes and cures of poor performance at first school leaving certificate examination (FSLCE) in 2006 identified and categorized problems responsible for students poor achievement to problems of qualified teachers, problems of inadequate facilities in the schools, problems traceable to students, problems caused by parents and society at large and problems of government policies and low funding of the education sector as stated by Ajila and olutola (2007).

This project is to critically examine and analyze the negative  and the poor family background on the academic achievement of students in Ogwashi-uku, Aniocha South Local Government Area of Delta State. The important role of parental background on the students’ academic performance cannot be over emphasized.

A child’s psychological and mental capabilities, emotions and motivations are necessary ingredients for improving the system of the family or home into which the child is born, for instance, in a family where both parents are formally educated; they will be interested in the achievement of their children. In a case where both parents do not have formal education, children from such family are expected to have dubious character in the society. The parents, relatives and peer groups are among the improvement agencies involved in the education of the people in content. There is no written curriculum or an organized system of education for people and neither is there any specific length of time the people could spend on learning the social norms. Learning is not structured and thus, it is often referred to as formal learning. It is obvious that every member of the society is involved in this type of learning.

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Statement of the Problem

Poor academic performance of students has been of great concern to educationists, guidance and counselors in particular. Despite all guidance programmes and counseling strategies mounted in schools to improve the students’ academic performances, poor performances are still recorded yearly in Nigeria and it has become necessary to find out the cause of such poor performance. The type of education one receives determines his future potentials. Parents and guardians are ill-feeling about the harming rate of poor academic performance of students in school nowadays. What they do eventually is to call the teachers to questions the pupil’s poor performance. Little do they know that other factors apart from teacher’s abilities such as home background do influence pupil’s academic performance. The home being a primary unit of socialization and where most of children learning take place cannot be single or left out in identifying course of poor academic performance of a child.

Based on the above problem, it was observed nonchalant attitude of parent/guardian, family size, broken home, non-assessment of students exercise daily, lack of educational material and lack of facilities influence the performance of student and it is on this note that lead the researcher to investigate on the influence of family background on the academic performance of students in Ogwashi-Uku, AniochaSouth Local Government Area of delta State.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to enable the agencies concerned with education of the child (the schools, parents, government, teachers, voluntary organizations and students themselves) to realize the following:

  1. To know if there is any relationship between provision of educational materials and academic performance of students.
  2. To know if the educational background of parents constitute a barrier to the academic performance of students.
  3. To know if the size of the family affects the students educational achievement.
  4. To know if the socio-economic level of parent affect the student’s academic performance.
  5. To know if parental motivation improve on students academic performance. .

Research Questions

The objective of this study is to find answers to the following questions:

  1. Is there any relationship between provision of educational materials and academic achievement of students?
  2. Does the educational background of the parents constitute a barrier to the academic performance of student?
  3. Does the size of the family affect the students’ educational achievement?
  4. Does the socio-economic level of parents affect the student academic performance?
  5. What influence does parental motivation improve on students academic?
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Significance of the Study

It is envisaged that the findings and recommendation that would be made from this study will make it obvious to the government, why it should provide the basic schools with laboratories, qualified teachers, good building and adequate facilities. Also to the teachers, the study will enable them to know that their method of teaching should be designed to cater for individual difference in the students. To the parents, the study will enable them to realize their position in terms of formal education background and their children performance in school.

Scope of the Study

The research work restricted its scope to sampling some selected basic school within Ogwashi-Uku in Aniocha South Local Government Area Delta State because of distance. Ogwashi Ukwu is a city in Delta State, Nigeria. It is located west of the state capital, Asaba and is the headquarters for the local government area, Aniocha South. The population of Ogwashi-Ukwu is about 26,137 according to the GeoNames geographical database. Ogwashi-Ukwu people are of the Igbo stock. The area is saturated with educational zone, family and civil servants.

Definition of Terms

The following definitions of terms are presented to minimize the problem of interpretation

  1. Family: The V.S. Bureau of Census in 2000 (2001) defines family as two or more persons related by birth, marriage or adoption who reside in the same house hold. This is a legal definition relying solely on relationship determined by blood or contract.
  2. Background: A person’s past history, family circumstances and social class
  3. Family Background: This involves the educational background of the family. Example of this, is formal education that one is exposed to.
  4. Academic Performance: This is the level of the achievement that is exhibited by an individual. This means the extent one is able to accomplish.


Pages:  48

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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