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Medical Laboratory Science

Histological Effect Of Carpet Grass Extract On The Kidney Of Albino Rats

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ABSTRACT

The histomorphological effect of Axonopus fissifolius leaf extract on the kidney of an albino rat was determined. The leaves were collected, washed thoroughly with distilled water, they were subsequently dried with hot air oven and comminuted using a grinding machine. Adult albino rats of both sexes, weighing between 201 g and 225 g were used for this study. Twenty healthy albino rat (male and female) acclimatized were weighed and randomly distributed into four different groups of five (5) in each. The groups were group A-D. Group A served as the control group and received pellet and water only, group B was treated with a dose of 100mg/kg of the extract, group C a dose of 200mg/kg and group D treated with a dose of 300mg/kg. The extract was dissolved in water and was administered once daily orally and slowly to the healthy for three (3) weeks using orogastric tube. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, the kidneys were removed and preserved in buffered 10 % formalin saline solution for histopathological processing. There were no significant differences in the body weight of the control animals and those who received Axonopus fissifolius leaf extract, the p value was > 0.05. No histological alterations were observed in animals treated with 100mg/kg of Axonopus fissifolius leaf extract. Examination of the kidney sections of rats treated with 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg of Axonopus fissifolius leaf extract showed enlarged and congested renal veins. Leucocytic infiltrations were observed in the interstitium . The renal tubules appeared with wide lumen and the tubular epithelia were degenerated and their lining cells exhibited cytoplasmic vacuolation and pyknotic nuclei. The glomeruli were atrophied with dilatation in the subcapsular space. An over dose of carpet grass leaf extract should be avoided because of it adverse effect on the histology of the kidney.

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Carpet grass (Axonopus fissifolius), mat-forming perennial grass of the family Poaceae, native to sandy soils in southeastern North America. Carpet grass is occasionally used as a lawn and pasture grass in warm areas, but its use generally indicates declining soil fertility, because it is a low-quality forage (Feedipedia, 2015). The plant has naturalized in many parts of the world.

Carpet grass reaches a height of 20–50 cm (8–20 inches). Its roots are very shallow; the plant spreads vegetatively with both rhizomes and stolons. The minute wind-pollinated flowers are borne in small panicles (compound spikes) with three or four branches (Heuzé et al., 2016). They seed profusely. Broadleaf carpet grass (A. compressus) is a closely related species native to South Africa. It too is used for lawns, though both species are often considered weeds.

Carpet grass is also great for erosion control. Any patch of land that you’re not ready to work with yet but would like to keep from eroding away will do well to have a patch of carpet grass grown on it to keep it safe until you’re ready to work with it (Cowell, 2009). The thick sod of carpet grass keeps weeds to a minimum too, meaning you won’t come back to the site and find that there’s been an infestation of Bermuda grass or other weeds.

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The importance of medicinal plants and traditional health systems to solve the problems of health care in the world is gaining more and more attention, unfortunately a lot of Nigerian consumed this leaf without having knowledge of the possible side effects of the vegetable. In the study carried out by Onwuka et al., (2017) they found out that the methanolic extract of Axonopus fissifolius have an ameliorative effect on gastric ulcer, while some study report that Axonopus fissifolius when consumed causes gastro-intestinal disturbances.

The kidney is a vital organ in the body that plays an important role in production of urine, maintenance of acid base balance and production of certain hormones (Okoli, 2015). Alteration to the morphological features of the kidney can affect its function thereby leading to a disease condition.

There is limited knowledge on the negative effect of phytochemicals as an injurious substance, the kidney is actively involved in the removal of metabolic waste from the body, and some of the substances found in natural herb are injurious to the kidney, causing a distortion to the histomorphology of the kidney. When the kidney and the liver is been subjected to this injurious substance for a long period of time, there is a likely tendency that inflammation of the kidney and liver may occur which may lead to acute kidney disease. Carpet grass is consumed without the knowledge of the dose that is suitable for the body normal function, thereby predisposing the kidney to damage.

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1.1   Justification

Herbs play a role in the management of various organ disorders, most of which speed up the natural healing processes of many organs (Rama et al., 2016).

Since ancient times, people have been exploring nature, particularly plants, in search of new drugs, and this has resulted in the use of a large number of medicinal plants with curative properties to treat various diseases (Rama, et al., 2016).

While several report has it that, carpet grass leaf extract has been used to fight infections, lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and for weight loss, clinical trials are generally lacking for therapeutic applications, and the harmful effect of an overdose of the drug.

Therefore the purpose of this study is to investigate the histological effect of Axonopus fissifolius leaf extract on the kidney of an albino rat.

1.2    Aim and Objectives

Aim

The aim of this study is to investigate the histological effect of Axonopus fissifolius leaf extract on the kidney of the albino rat.

Objectives

The specific objective of this study is as follow:

  1. To investigate the effect of Axonopus fissifolius leaf extract on the histology of the kidney of the albino rat.
  2. To investigate the effect of Axonopus fissifolius leaf extract on weight changes of the albino rat.

    Pages:  56

    Category: Project

    Format:  Word & PDF               

    Chapters: 1-5                                          

    Source: Imsuinfo

    Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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