Connect with us

Medical Laboratory Science

Assessment of Prevalence of Malaria Infection among Solid Waste Disposal Workers and Solid Waste Scavengers in Owerri Municipal

Published

on

ABSTRACT

This project work Prevalence of Malaria Infection among Solid Waste Disposal Workers And Solid Waste Scavengers in Owerri comprises of 60 subjects. Thirty (30) solid waste disposal workers and thirty (30) solid waste scavengers. These subjects were grouped according to age (24-33; 33-43; >44). Blood samples were collected and analyzed using standard malaria microscopy. All been male. 26.67% of the population showed symptoms of Malaria  for the past two weeks whereas 73.33% did not show any symptom of Malaria for the past two weeks. 70% of the tested solid waste disposal workers did not show symptoms of Malaria. Prevalence of Malaria among solid waste disposal workers was 30%  with high prevalence among the age group 34-43. 76.67% of the tested solid waste scavengers did not show symptoms of Malaria. Prevalence of Malaria among solid waste scavengers was 23.33%  with age group 24-33 having higher prevalence (13.33%) compared to age group 34-43 with 10% prevalence. There is higher prevalence of malaria infection (30%) among solid waste disposal workers than solid waste scavengers (23.33%). From this study, High prevalence of malaria was observed among solid waste disposal workers and solid waste scavengers especially those between the age of 34-43. Low access to bed net, lack of formal sleeping accommodation, and absence of frequent exposure to malaria places solid waste disposal workers and solid waste scavengers are at highly significant (p=0.05) risk of developing malaria infection.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

Malaria still remains a significant public health problem especially in low and middle income countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 2015, malaria transmission in Nigeria is abysmally high with over 76% of the population reporting more than 1 case per 1,000 populations annually. There was a less than 50% decrease in projected incidence of malaria from 2000–2015. Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo account for more than 35% of the global total of estimated malaria deaths (WHO, 2016). Malaria is principally caused by protozoa (Plasmodium species) and is transmitted through the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito (Mwangangi et al., 2013). Within the tropics and subtropics, human malaria is seen to be the most wide spread vector-borne disease (Ahmad et al., 2011). Available statistics have documented that malaria is highly endemic in Nigeria with over 90% of the populace at risk of infection. It is the prime cause of 60% outpatient consultation for all age groups and at least half of the Nigerian populace are exposed to at least one bout of malaria attack every year (Idowu, 2012).

See also  Evaluation F Histiopatlogical Diagnosis In The Treatment And Management Of Fibrocystic Disease Of The Breast

An integrative approach has been recommended to mitigate the spread of malaria parasites. One of such strategy or approach is the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) through a combination of biological and chemical methods. It is aimed at improving ecological soundness and sustainability for the control of vector borne diseases, improve efficacy and cost effectiveness (Zacchaeus and Amadi, 2012). Components of IVM include the use of preventive (e.g. use of mosquito repellents, long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and wearing of protective clothing) and chemical control methods (e.g. environmental and biological control measures, outdoor spraying, larviciding and indoor residual spraying) (NMCP, 2008). Other malaria control strategies recommended by WHO for the control of malaria include; ITNs use, IRS and prompt management of malaria cases with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs) (WHO, 2008). From a triad perspective which includes the agent, host and environment, researchers and scholars have encouraged the source reduction, elimination and eradication of mosquitoes breeding sites by concentrating on the environment. These tend to be essential because, the proliferation of mosquitoes continually perpetuate the transmission of malaria. So, it can be postulated that if the sources of mosquitoes breeding sites is eradicated or eliminated, malaria would be drastically reduced. This implies that good environmental sanitation practices could help mitigate malaria transmission, promote healthiness and improve quality of life of the populace.

See also  The Oculo/Visual Problems Associated With Artificial Eyelashes And Mascara Among Female Undergraduates Of Madonna University

Solid waste management involves a series of processes that are all crucial to the reduction of the breeding sites of mosquitoes. The four main processes are: collection, transport, treatment, and final disposal. Our work addresses the collection of solid waste and its correlation with the incidences of Malaria. Components of uncollected solid waste disposal such as plastic beakers and cans collect water when it rains; mosquitoes will breed in such artificial mini-wetlands after 2−3 days. Subsequently, these uncollected wastes can be washed away by rain or blown by wind into drainage channels leaving the channels either with reduced storm water transport capacities or completely chocked. In built-up urban areas this can results in severe flooding. The microclimate in such flooded areas within residential areas offers favorable conditions for breeding of mosquitoes.

Poor waste management systems constitute the major causes of diseases in Nigeria (ADB, 2002), of which malaria ranks the highest. Other waste related diseases include typhoid fever and cholera. The purpose of our study was to investigate a possible correlation between waste collection methods in use and the incidences of malaria. Does the solid waste collection system used in an urban area correlate with the incidence of the malaria disease?

The results will serve as a guide for the development of strategies to enhance the collection of waste from urban environments. The results will enable political leaders to appreciate the severity of the problem and to prioritise solid waste management in urban areas. Also, the results will serve as a basis for a public awareness campaign oriented at promoting healthy solid waste management strategies.

See also  The Role Of Dna Barcoding As A Tool In Molecular Systematics

1.1     Justification of Study

Imo State is situated in an area of stable malaria transmission throughout the year. Owerri Municipal Local Government Area is an urban area which is characterized by poor drainage and waste disposal systems, damaged road and stagnant water. The area is also characterized by overcrowding and poor sanitation resulting from high level of refuse generation, indiscriminate dumping of refuse, blocked gutters, potholes creating stagnant pools of water for mosquito breeding and odor nuisance. All of these factors proliferates the breeding of female anopheles mosquitoes. Hence, considering the significant of the environment on the control and prevention of malaria, this study was aimed at assessing of malaria among refuse disposal workers in Owerri Municpal Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria.

1.2     Research Question

Is there high prevalence of malaria infection among solid waste disposal and solid waste scavengers workers in Owerri?

1.3     Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis (Ho)

There is no high prevalence of malaria infection among solid waste disposal and solid waste scavengers workers in Owerri.

Alternative Hypothesis (H1)

There is low prevalence of malaria infection among solid waste disposal and solid waste scavengers workers in Owerri.

1.4     Aims

To assess the prevalence of malaria infection among solid waste disposal and solid waste scavengers workers in Owerri

1.5     Objectives

  1. To assess the prevalence of malaria infection among solid waste disposal and solid waste scavengers workers in Owerri
  2. To know if there is any correlation between solid waste disposal and solid waste scavengers and incidence of malaria infection.

Pages:  49

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF

Chapters: 1-5

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

 

Advertisement
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Advertisement

Project Materials

IMSU Info contains over 1000 project material in various departments, kindly select your department below to uncover all the topics/materials therein.

Trending