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Hospitality & Tourism Management

Exogenous Determinants In Developed Tourist Sites In Nigeria




The study investigated the impact of exogenous vairiables on development of tourist sites in Nigeria. It aimed at exploring the great potential for skills development, providing avenues for generation of knowledge which is an indispensable feature of the tourism sectors, help in creating knowledge, foster innovation and transmission of cultural heritage to the new generation. The study literature reviews that the tourism sectors are also innovative not only where it overlaps with the creative industries but also in its core activities related to conservation and restoration. It was also observed that the tourist are exposed to environmental hazards by the way and manner people misuse the sites and most the mismanagement of the heritage, and natural sites, to contribute to degradation, health hazard, pollution etc in the Abuja metropolis.



1.1    Background of the Study

Tourism is an instrument of economic regeneration and stability; hence, if properly harnessed, it has the capacity to creating wealth, empowering the people, and generates employment opportunities (Okoli, 2001). The sector has been the economy’s mainstay of many countries worldwide (Bello, et al., 2007). The authors affirmed that many countries, such as France, Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Israel, the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, Malaysia, Thailand, and many island nations, such as Mauritius, Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles are seriously reaping the benefits of this growing sector. In 2011, the economic contribution of tourism globally was put at about $6.3million in GDP with about 200 million jobs directly created, hence, showing that the industry is contributing significantly to the service economy of the world with enormous potentials for socio-economic development (UNWTO, 2008).

Human development and population growth are continuous and all will continually mount pressure on water and land resources with consequent reduction in these resources, thereby posing threats to all the natural resources. Pressure on natural resources, widespread development, pollution, population growth and ecosystem destruction are highlighted consequences of tourism industry (Benoit and come an 2005). Therefore, to avoid degredation of the raw materials which support the tourism industry, Philips and Jones (2006) emphasized the importance or maintain something (The international webster’s comprehensive Dictionary 2004) sustainability in ecological context is the ability of ecosystem to maintain ecological processes, function and biodiversity productivity in future (NASA 2002), according to Jafari et al 1996, tourism is sustainable when its development and operation include participation of local population, protection of the total environment, fair economic return for the industry and the host community, as well as a mutual respect for the gratification of all parties involved.

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The main focus of sustainability is to satisfy the need of the present generations, while avoiding compromising the interest of future generations, by not degrading the resources base interest of future generations, by not degrading the resources base (Andrew 1998). That is for an ecosystem to sustain itself; its resources must be used at the rate which they can replenish themselves. It implies improving the quality of human life, while living within the carrying capacity of earth’s supporting ecosystem (LUCN 2008). Landscape can fashionable as seen with ecotourism. The perceptions of landscape not only vary among social value (KANT 1928) but also with time. Although development often reduces science value (Ergin et al 2006) and result in reduced amenity (Beloit and Campeau 2005), it is necessary to provide infrastructure in support of support of tourism industry. Tourism is essential for both the tourism industry and natural environment (Eagles et al 200, IUCN 1994). Therefore development should be focused on tourism products, while protecting nature and landscape.

Abuja is greatly endowed with tourist resources relative to other states in Nigeria (Okoli, 2001). Travel and Tourism Economic Impact Assessment on Nigeria in 2012 by the World Travel and Tourism Council (WEF, 2012), revealed that Abuja State has the required tourist resources to enhance her economic landscape, hence, witness steady growth economically. The report affirmed that tourist resources in Abuja State fall into hotels or resorts, recreational parks, wildlife, natural sceneries, cultural festivals, historical relics and monuments (Bello and Bello, 2012; Okoli, 2001). This implies that Abuja State is richly blessed with abundant tourist resources. The state was created on the 1st of October 1996 by the then Provisional Ruling Council (PRC). Carved out of the former Ondo State, Abuja State is made up of Abuja Central, Abuja North, Abuja South and Abuja West senatorial districts (Bello et al., 2014).

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1.2    Statement of Problem

Despite the abundant tourist resources in Abuja State, the National Bureau of Statistics (2010) rated the tourist resources in Abuja state as one of the least demanded by both international and domestic tourists. Olorunfemi (2007) and Sola (2007) in a study of the analysis of demand for developed tourism sites in Nigeria revealed that Abuja state has a very low demand compared to other developed tourist sites in South West, Nigeria, thus, ranked in number 5 behind Ondo State. The index in the above information shows that the demand of developed tourist sites in Abuja State among both the locals and international tourists is not healthy, hence, the practical gaps that necessitate the current study.

Various studies have being conducted to examine the determinants of demand for tourism sites in Nigeria (Bello et al., 2014; Bello and Bello, 2012). However, limited studies have reported the model capable of explaining exogenous determinants of demand for developed tourism site in Abuja State (Bello et al., 2014). Studies that focused on social and cultural attractions, and degree of urbanisation as determinants of demand for tourism sites in Abuja State had not being reported (Bello, 2012). This is the theoretical gap that calls for the current study, hence, modelling those exogenous determinants of demand for developed tourism site in Abuja State with focus on the social and cultural attractions, and degree of urbanisation determinants.

1.3    Objective of the Study

The general objective of this study is to examine the exogenous determinant in developed tourist sites in Nigeria with reference to FCT Abuja.

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The specific objectives include;

  1. To examine the level of awareness of the people on the hazard of tourist sites
  2. To ascertain the level of patronage of tourists in these developed tourist sites
  • To identify the problems hindering the development of these sites

1.4    Research Questions

  1. What is the level of awareness of the people on the hazard of tourist sites?
  2. To what extent has these developed tourist sites received patronage from tourists both in Abuja and outside its coast.
  • What are the problems hindering the development of these tourist sites?

1.5    Research Hypothesis

The following hypotheses guided the study;

H0: The level of patronage of these tourists in various sites is not an exogenous determinant of the development of tourism in Nigeria

H1: The level of patronage of these tourists in various sites is an exogenous determinant of the development of tourism in Nigeria

1.6    Significance of the Study

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to the federal ministry of culture and tourism travelers, lectures, tourists and students, the study will help to identify the problems hindering the development of various tourist sites and tourism in Nigeria. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide.

The findings of this study lend further support disposable income will lead to whether a destination is selected specifically during the pre-trip stage of the tourist decision-making process.

In addition to making a theoretical contribution, the text will also be of great value to those planning to join – or already working in – the service industry, since customer service is critical to most businesses in this sector.

Pages:  30

Category: Seminar

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo                           

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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