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Evaluation Of Some Trace Metal And Lipid Profile Parameters In Patients With Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus Attending Federal Medical Center, Owerri

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ABSTRACT 

This study was done to comparatively study the levels of micronutrients (Zn and Copper) and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients attending Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State. A total of 40 subjects were studied. 20 samples of type 2 diabetic patients and 20 samples of normal patients considered as apparently healthy by clinical examination and with no history of any disease in recent days were included in the study. Ethical approval was obtained from the hospital and informed consent was sought and obtained from the subject before commencement of samples. Five (5ml) of blood was collected from each subject from the antecubital vein using standard venipuncture techniques, the samples in the tube was centrifuged at 3000rpm for 5 minutes to separate the serum. All reagents used were commercially prepared and procured and the manufacturer’s standard operating procedures were strictly followed. Serum copper and zinc were analyzed using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry. The mean ± standard deviation of glucose in type 2 diabetic samples (213±66.3) increased significantly than the normal samples(93.5±12.1) (p<0.05). There was a high mean ±SD of Total cholesterol, triglyceride and Low density lipoprotein. However, there was a low High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in diabetic samples (42.41 ± 8.25) compared with normal samples (50.6 ± 11.9). There was high serum copper levels (61.1±28.6) and serum Zinc levels (23.4±9.99). It was therefore concluded that type 2 diabetes mellitus causes high serum Copper (CU), Zinc (Zn), Cholesterol, Triglyceride and low density lipoprotein (LDL) but causes a low serum HDL.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrinological disorders affecting people all over the world. The disease is a chronic condition where the cause is either lack of insulin secretion or impaired action of the hormone which results to Hyperglycemia (WHO, 2012). Long term hyperglycemic condition is proven to cause major complications like damage to kidneys, nerves and other internal organs. The disease is also found to cause complete distortion of the body metabolism. The severity of metabolic distortion is dependent on the severity of hyperglycemia. Diabetes is often associated with metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and abnormal lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome is often characterized by various other clinical features like disturbance in glucose and insulin metabolism, obesity and abdominal fat distribution (David et al, 2002).

Micronutrients are required during all stages of development. Micronutrients mostly refer to vitamins and minerals. These are required in minute quantities and hence the term micronutrients. Micronutrients mainly exert their function as enzyme cofactors and transcription factors thus controlling the metabolic pathways. They control the basic cellular reactions like glycolysis, citric acid cycle and also amino acid and protein metabolism (Belinda et al, 2001).

Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation and plays a key role in important reactions as ATP hydrolysis, transphosphorylation, DNA and protein synthesis. Studies have proven the association of Magnesium with various health complications like hypertension, insulin resistance, distorted lipid profile, diabetes and its complications. It’s been studied that an inverse relationship exists between Magnesium levels and glycemic control in both types of diabetes. Low Magnesium in diet was also found to be associated with increase in insulin levels and extremely low Magnesium levels with insulin resistance (Belinda et al, 2001).Copper plays  an important role in body metabolism as the regulator of various enzymes and transcription factors. It has been observed that increased oxidative stress in diabetes and the disturbances in micronutrient levels have contributed to the complications in diabetes (Daniela, 2005).

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Zinc is yet another important component of enzymes and transcription factors. Zinc has been found to be involved in the synthesis, storage and release of insulin. Various animal studies have shown that when dietary Zinc was deprived it led to the development of glucose intolerance. Zinc has also been found to enhance the action of insulin (Zargar et al, 1998). Both Copper and Zinc is involved in oxidant antioxidant. Increased oxidative stress has been noted in diabetes and thus Zinc and Copper plays a role via Copper/ Zinc superoxide dismutase involved in protecting the cells from free radical damage (Jiancheng et al, 2013). Copper when present in free form is toxic. This causes oxidation reduction imbalance causing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is one of the key factors associated with diabetes mellitus (Sarkar et al, 2010). Ceruloplasmin carries majority of plasma Copper and reduces its existence in the   free form (Belinda et al, 2001).

1.1  Justification

Diabetes is an epidemic disease in most countries. Worldwide, an estimated 150 million people are affected by diabetes, and this number is likely to reach 300 million by the year 2025 if successful strategies are not implemented for its prevention and control (WHO, 2012). There are many research work on diabetes mellitus and its accompanying complications but there is paucity of information regarding the contribution of micronutrients and lipid profile in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hence the rational for the comparative study on the micronutrients and lipid profile of diabetic subjects.

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1.2   Aims and Objectives

Study of some micronutrients and lipid profile parameters in type 2 diabetes patients attending Federal Medical Center Owerri.

Objective

  • To determine the glucose levels of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and compare with normal subjects.
  • To determine the serum copper, and zinc in type 2 diabetic subjects under study and compare with normal subject.
  • To determine the serum levels of High density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein and compare with normal individual.

Pages:  82

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF        

Chapters: 1-5

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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