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Physics/Industrial Physics

Effect On Slanting Angle On The Current Voltage Characteristics Of A Solar Panel

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ABSTRACT

The effect on slanting angle on the current-voltage characteristics of a solar panel checks the effect of slanting angle on the solar panel, relationship between current-voltage characteristics, to evaluate the impact of solar radiation and temperature on I-V characteristics. Two panels will be used for the study or investigation. One panel will be horizontal, while the other slanting angle. The IV characteristics of the solar panel will be studied simultaneously. The current voltage graph will be plotted for the two panels for comparative analysis. Photovoltaic systems have become an urgent requirement to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and reduce air pollutants from burning. The result of the study showed that the current is affected slightly by the increase in the radiation intensity while the module voltage is affected highly by the intensity of radiation.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Solar panels are devices that convert sunlight into electrical energy by making use of photovoltaic (PV) effect. Photovoltaic, otherwise called photo-electricity, is a compound word for photo that is light and voltaic that is electric (from Volta the inventor). It is simply the conversion or generation of electricity from light. Antoine-Cesar Becquerel, a French physicist discovered in the 1839, that certain materials produce electric current when exposed to light. This phenomenon is called photoelectric effect and forms the basis for the science and technology of photovoltaics. When sunlight hits the solar panel, it excites electrons in the panel’s material, creating a flow of electrons and hence an electrical current. The voltage-current characteristic of a solar panel is an important parameter that describes how much electrical energy a solar panel can produce under different operating conditions. In this context, the slanting angle of a solar panel refers to the angle at which it is mounted with respect to the horizontal plane.

The slanting angle of a solar panel has a significant effect on the current-voltage characteristics of the panel. When a solar panel is mounted at an angle, it receives sunlight at an angle, which affects the amount of sunlight that reaches the panel. When a solar panel is mounted at an angle, the amount of sunlight that reaches the panel decreases as the angle increases. This is because the sunlight has to travel a longer distance through the atmosphere before it reaches the panel. This reduces the amount of sunlight that reaches the panel, reducing the amount of electrical energy that can be generated by the panel.

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The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a solar panel show how the current generated by the panel varies with the voltage across its terminals.

One factor that can affect the I-V characteristics of a solar panel is the angle at which it is tilted with respect to the sun. The angle of tilt affects the amount of sunlight that falls on the panel, which in turn affects the amount of current it generates. The following are the effects of slanting angle on the current-voltage characteristics of a solar panel:

Optimum tilt angle: The optimum tilt angle of a solar panel depends on the latitude of the location and the season.

Decreased current at low angles: When a solar panel is tilted at a low angle with respect to the sun, the amount of sunlight that falls on the panel decreases. This results in a decrease in the amount of current generated by the panel. At very low angles, the panel may not generate any current at all.

Increased current at high angles: When a solar panel is tilted at a high angle with respect to the sun, the amount of sunlight that falls on the panel increases. This results in an increase in the amount of current generated by the panel.

Shift in maximum power point: The maximum power point (MPP) of a solar panel is the point on the I-V curve where the product of current and voltage is maximum. The MPP depends on the amount of sunlight falling on the panel.

In addition, the angle at which a solar panel is mounted affects the temperature of the panel. When a solar panel is mounted at an angle, it may receive less airflow, leading to an increase in temperature. The increase in temperature can affect the efficiency of the panel, reducing the amount of electrical energy that can be generated by the panel.

The slanting angle of a solar panel has a significant effect on the current-voltage characteristics of the panel. The angle affects the amount of sunlight that reaches the panel, the temperature of the panel, and the amount of shading that occurs on the panel. To maximize the electrical energy output of a solar panel, it is important to consider the optimal slanting angle for the panel’s location and the shading effects of nearby objects.

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1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Solar panels are devices that convert sunlight into electricity through the photovoltaic effect. However, the performance of a solar panel can be influenced by various factors, including the angle at which the sunlight hits the panel, known as the incident angle. When the incident angle of the sunlight is not perpendicular to the solar panel, the resulting angle of incidence can cause a reduction in the amount of electricity generated.

This phenomenon, known as the slanting effect, can impact the current voltage (IV) characteristics of a solar panel, which describe the relationship between the current and voltage generated by the panel. Specifically, the effect on slanting angle can cause a shift in the IV curve, resulting in a decrease in both the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage of the panel.

This problem is of particular concern in situations where the incident angle of the sunlight cannot be controlled, such as in mobile or portable solar panels. To optimize the performance of solar panels and minimize the impact of the slanting effect, various techniques such as solar tracking systems and tilt angle adjustments can be employed.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of slanting angle on the current-voltage characteristics of a solar panel.

The Objectives of the Project is that;

  1. The IV characteristics of the solar panel will be measured.
  2. Two panels will be used for the study or investigation.

III. One panel will be horizontal, while the other slanting angle.

  1. The IV characteristics of the solar panel will be studied simultaneously
  2. The current voltage graph will be plotted for the two panels for comparative analysis.

1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The study on Effect on slanting angle on the current voltage characteristics of a solar panel is important for several reasons, which cannot be overemphasized. The solar panels are increasingly being used as a renewable energy source to generate electricity, and their efficiency is critical in determining their feasibility and cost-effectiveness. Understanding the factors that affect the performance of solar panels, such as slanting is crucial for optimizing their output and ensuring that they can compete with other sources of energy.

Slanting is a common issue in solar panel installations, especially in areas with uneven terrain or where panels are mounted on different rooftops. Also consider, the current roof-type, slanting angle is almost unavailable in solar panel installation. Effect on slanting angle can affect the angle of incidence of sunlight on the panel, which can in turn affect the current voltage characteristics of the panel. By studying the effects of slanting on the performance of solar panels, researchers and engineers can develop better strategies for mounting and positioning panels to maximize their output.

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The study of slanting effects on the current voltage characteristics of a solar panel can help improve our understanding of the physical processes that govern the behavior of solar cells. Solar cells are complex devices that involve a variety of physical phenomena, including the interaction of light with matter

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study on slanting effects on the current voltage characteristics of a solar panel would involve investigating how the orientation of the solar panel affects its electrical output. This study would involve measuring the current and voltage characteristics of a solar panel at different angles of orientation with respect to the sun.

The study would likely involve conducting experiments on a solar panels, using equipment such as a multimeter and an angle meter, the slanting angel was estimated using the Pythagoras theorem (SOH(OPP/HYP)), (CAH(ADJ/HYP)), (TOA(OPP/ADJ)) to measure the current and voltage output of the panel. The panel would be mounted on a tracking system that would allow it to be oriented at different angles with respect to the sun.

The study could also involve comparing the output of the solar panel at different angles of orientation to the output of a panel that is fixed at a specific angle. This would allow for a comparison of the performance of the two panels and could provide insight into the benefits of using a tracking system for solar panels.

The results of the study could be used to determine the optimal orientation of solar panels for maximum efficiency and to inform the design of solar tracking systems. Additionally, the study could provide valuable insights into the effects of slanting on the electrical performance of solar panels, which could be useful in the development of new solar panel technologies.


Pages:  51

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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