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Assessment Of The Method Of Teaching Business Studies In Five Selected Junior Secondary Schools In Aniocha South Local Government Area




This study was carried out to assess the methods of teaching business studies in junior secondary schools in Aniocha Local Government Area IN Anambra State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised of thirty-one (31) business studies teachers in Aniocha Local Government Area. However, there was no sampling because the population was manageable. Three research questions were raised to guide the study. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire which was developed by the researcher and validated by two experts; one in Measurement and Evaluation and one in Accounting Education Department of Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba. 31 copies of the validated questionnaires were administered to the selected business studies teachers in Aniocha Local Government Area of Anambra State and while 28 questionnaires returned and analyzed. On the basis of the analysis, the study found among others that methods used in teaching business studies includes lecture method, demonstration method, discovery method, questioning method and project method; discovery method of teaching help the students to develop problem-solving skills because it encourages them to discover new learning experiences on their own; students understand better when teachers demonstrate while teaching certain topics in business studies and questioning method used in teaching business studies makes the teaching and learning interesting. Based on the findings, the study recommended that more classrooms should be built to tackle the problem of overpopulation and to enable the teachers use demonstration method in teaching business studies; teachers should avoid using lecture method in teaching business studies because it is teacher-centered and Emphasis should be on the use of discovery method in teaching business studies to develop students’ problem-solving ability.



Background to the Study

Learning can be termed as the change in behavior that is brought out by the adaptation of different experiences, information, and motivation. It can also be defined as the development of the capabilities of an individual. Learning is not something that is static, but it is a factor that can be developed during the lives of students and keeps on changing with their age and results in finding out how that knowledge can be used. Business education plays a significant role in today’s era. Different companies are also concerned about the phenomenon and think that whether the executives in future was able to manage the companies by the use of concepts and techniques or not. Therefore, the learning of a particular student should not only relate to the knowledge imparted by the instructor but with their attitudes and the approach that is chosen by them for the particular subject (Shetra, 2013). By keeping an eye on the business education, a question arises that if it is this much important, then why this subject is founded by students at senior level, kept dry and boring and reflected of not having any insights into the real world. We as the masters of business education, realize that the awareness among children is misplaced (Shetra, 2013). Traditionally the methods used in teaching business courses to us are useful for making students understand the concept in a logical way, but this method leads the students in making them passive because of the unilateral nature of communication. It is difficult for an individual to adapt learning without the participation of audience and it is not a practical method of teaching as it is not able to show the real picture of the situations in the business world. Therefore, there is a considerable need for thinking different from the typical lecturing methods of teaching business. Enhancing teaching business aimed to give the students enough knowledge about the business from a practical angle (Allinson, 2009).

Business Studies is a dynamic course which prepares students for the challenges of the 21st century by introducing them to the world of business. Umezulike and Okoye (2013) considered business studies as the key agent of economic and technological development either as a way of developing human capacity, increasing the shield of workforce for modernization, industrialization, and environmental development or as a matter of personal freedom and empowerment of the populace. Amoor (2010) noted that business studies plays a significant role in the economic development by providing knowledge and skills to the learners, thereby, enabling them to adequately impart knowledge into others, and handle sophisticated office technologies and information systems. The goal of business studies is primarily to produce competent, skillful and dynamic business teachers, office administrators and businessmen and women that will effectively compete in the world of work. It has as its primary aim, the preparation of people for roles in enterprises such roles could be as employee, entrepreneur and employer or simply as self employed. Teaching has remained a noble profession the world over, and all over history. Teaching has also been seen as an attempt geared towards assisting the learner to change his behavior in a specific context, in this sense, It could be a change of attitude, knowledge, idea, skill or appreciation (Paul, 2011). Teaching strategies are the practice and refinement of presentation which a teacher uses to make his teaching more effective when using a specific method or teaching aid. Okwuanaso and Nwazor (2010) stated that in teaching and learning situation, strategies are same as methods and procedures of teaching. It is the practiced refinement or presentation which a teacher uses to make his teaching more effective. Teaching strategies play very important role in the teaching and learning process.

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Osuala (2009) explained that a business teacher is a person who is knowledgeable in the six components of course that make business education programme. He is a professional teacher of business who is constantly aware of the state of the art in business education. He should motivate, guide and direct students while remaining in the background. Osuala stated the qualities required of a business teacher as follows: – A vocational business teacher must be professionally qualified and occupationally competent. He must have a proper orientation in the subjects or skill he is to teach. – He should be able to listen effectively, allow for questions and should have self-control together with being a good disciplinarian, always sensitive to students’ needs. – He should be physically, emotionally and intellectually stable and suitable to handle both the subject matter and the students he teaches. Business studies teachers are trained at tertiary institutions to prepare youths for vocations and also furnishes them with necessary skills, attitudes and abilities that are relevant to securing jobs in business world and gain insight into the general business information so as to be a good producer and consumer of goods and services for national sustainable development. Business Studies and Sustainable National Development The 6-3-3-4 system of education introduced in 1982 gave birth to introduction of business studies in junior secondary schools (JSS) curriculum. Business studies as described in the business studies curriculum, as a course is comprehensive in nature. It is made of many interrelated area of study. It is a practical course which should be taught practically by making the teaching situations as real as possible (Igboke,2015). Business studies is integrated in nature which means that the subject is taught as a single subject which has five major components of bookkeeping, commerce, office practice, shorthand and typewriting. Business studies is expository and discovery in nature which enable students to discover those skills and potentials that help individuals in future for life long education. The curriculum is broad and rich in skill acquisition subjects and students are expected to cover all the various subjects to enable them possess the pre-vocational skills therein. It helps in training the student on those skills that are relevant to develop skills, aptitudes, potentials and competencies to be useful citizens and contribute economically in the society (Esene, 2012). The National policy on Education (FRN, 2009) stated the objectives of business studies as follows: To enable students, acquire the basic knowledge of business studies, to develop the basic skills in office occupation, to prepare the students for further training in business studies, to produce orientation and basic skills to start a life work for those who may not undergo further training, to provide basic skills for personal use in future, and to relate the knowledge and skills to the national economy.

Promoting Business studies programme through a properly coordinated education and effective teaching strategies would help in economic sustainability and national development. Business education holds the prospect of contributing, through its job creation and self-employment packages, for the attainment of vision 2020. A gainfully employed individual contributes to economy, reduces poverty and unemployment which are some of the indices of national development and disaster management. The teachers are vital instruments in national sustainable development and when trained and retrained in their areas of specialization will update their knowledge and keep abreast with new devices, technological changes and innovations coming up so as to develop the students with the right skills and knowledge of 21st century (UNESCO, 2009). The centre for Global Development (2002) reports that education gives people the skills they need to help themselves out of poverty and into prosperity; with education, people are better prepared to prevent disease and to use health services effectively; when people are self–reliant and earn wages, they in turn, contribute to national economic growth. Education supports the growth of any society, democracy, political stability, allowing people to learn about their rights and acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to exercise them. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2009) recognizes education as an instrument par excellence for national development. All the restructuring and policy formations in education are aimed at repositioning education for sustainable national development. Jarolumck (2012) described experimental instructional strategies as any learning activity that is carried on by the students as a group outside the classroom under the guidance of the teacher. It thus provides the experiences that cannot be brought into the classroom when properly planned and they give valuable reforms but when they are poorly planned, they may lack purpose, and may jeopardize the safety of the students.

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A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about (Joy, 2010). Suggestions are there to design and selection of teaching methods must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also how students learn. In today’s school the trend is that it encourages a lot of creativity. It is a known fact that human advancement comes through reasoning. This reasoning and original thought enhances creativity.

The approaches for teaching can be broadly classified into teacher centered and student centered (Nelson, 2013). In Teacher-Centered Approach to Learning like the lecture method and demonstration method, Teachers are the main authority figure in this model. Students are viewed as “empty vessels” whose primary role is to passively receive information (via lectures and direct instruction) with an end goal of testing and assessment. It is the primary role of teachers to pass knowledge and information onto their students. In this model, teaching and assessment are viewed as two separate entities. Student learning is measured through objectively scored tests and assessments. The teacher-centred method of teaching is also known as the conventional method or traditional methods of teaching where the learner contribute little or nothing in the teaching-learning process. In Student-Centered Approach to Learning like discovery, project and discussion method, while teachers are the authority figure in this model, teachers and students play an equally active role in the learning process. The teacher’s primary role is to coach and facilitate student learning and overall comprehension of material. Student learning is measured through both formal and informal forms of assessment, including group projects, student portfolios, and class participation. Teaching and assessments are connected; student learning is continuously measured during teacher instruction.

In learner-centred methods, the teacher/instructor is both a teacher and a learner at the same time. In the words of Lawrence Stenhouse (2015), the teacher plays a dual role as a learner as well “so that in his classroom extends rather than constricts his intellectual horizons”. The teacher also learns new things everyday which he/she didn’t know in the process of teaching. The teacher, “becomes a resource rather than an authority”. Examples of learner-centred methods are discussion method, discovery or inquiry based approach and the Hill’s model of learning through discussion.

In conventional or traditional methods of teaching like demonstration method used by teachers gives no room for students to bring their wealth of experience into the teaching and learning process this is because it is the teachers who does all the talking while the students only listen and follow instructions. In other words, conventional methods of teaching focus on the teachers as the centre of instruction.

Conventional teaching is also limiting the room for more creative thinking and also seldom considering individual differences. It is necessary to realize these limitations in conventional teaching and take a step to move forward because when students participate in teaching-learning activities, they tend to be more interested which improve their level of comprehension and their performance in the subject.

Statement of the Problem

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One of the things that determines the effective delivery of lesson is the method used in teaching. Ekunno (2010) stated that poor teaching methods used in teaching of business studies gave rise to inadequacy of learning of the required skills of business studies. Uzodi (2012) noted that one of the major observed problems in the education system by parents, teachers, government and so on, is the absence of effective method for teaching business studies at Junior Secondary School. Umaeiye (2015) observed that the teaching strategies adopted by most business education teachers are more of theory than practice and inquiry, and that the type of teaching materials used are all outdated, therefore, no longer relevant for teaching in the present information technology era. The type of strategy to be adopted by any teacher depends on the information or skills the teacher is trying to convey. Students’ performance in business studies cannot be improved unless teachers adopt suitable effective strategies and approaches of teaching business studies. It is generally believed that if business education students are properly taught the requisite life skills before leaving schools, they should certainly acquire the desired skills necessary for sustainable national development. This will create opportunity for paid or self-employment, unemployment and poverty was eradicated in our society. Students’ performance over the years have not been impressive which many attributed it to the method of teaching used by teachers. The traditional methods of teaching used by teachers in teaching business studies like lecture, demonstration, and story-telling methods of teaching have been found not to effective enough this is because of the methods concentrate more on the teachers making the students to be passive learners which contribute to poor academic performance in the subject, hence the need to assess the method of teaching business studies and make necessary recommendation for improvement. It is against this backdrop that study is carried out to assess the methods of teaching business studies in Aniocha local government area of Anambra state.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the methods of teaching business studies in Junior Secondary schools in Aniocha local government area of Anambra state. Specifically, the study seeks to find out:

  1. The methods used in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary schools in Aniocha local government area.
  2. How effective are the methods used in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary schools in Aniocha local government area.
  3. The challenges of the methods used in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary schools in Aniocha local government area.

Research Questions

To effectively carryout the study, the following research questions were raised:

  1. What are the methods used in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary schools in Aniocha local government area?
  2. How effective are the methods used in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary schools in Aniocha local government area?
  3. What are challenges of the methods used in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary schools in Aniocha local government area?

Significance of the Study

The study of this nature if implemented would be great benefit to teachers, students, school management and the field of business studies.

The findings of this study would go a long way in helping then teachers to improve in their methods of teaching and the ways of talking the challenges faced in teaching business studies in at the junior secondary school level.

It would also help the students to appreciate the role of method of teaching in the effective delivery of lesson and comprehension.

The finding of the study would assist the school administration to understanding the challenges of using conventional methods of teaching business studies which would enable the management to emphasis on the use of modern methods of teaching for effective delivery of the lesson.

The study would add to the body of knowledge in the field of business studies and serve as a reference for those who may intend to carry out further studies in this field.

Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the assessment of the method of teaching business studies in five selected Junior Secondary schools in Aniocha South local government area. With particular emphasis on methods of teaching business studies, the effectiveness of the methods and the challenges faced in using conventional methods.

Pages:  50

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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