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Factors Affecting The Effective Utilization Of Instructional Materials In Teaching Business Education In Universities In Delta State

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ABSTRACT

This study investigated the factors affecting the effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta State. Three (3) research questions guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised all the forty-four (44) Business Education Lecturers in University of Benin, Asaba Campus and all the thirty-two (32) Business Education Lecturers in Delta state University of Education Agbor, Delta State. Due to the manageable number of Business Education lecturers in both University of Benin, Asaba Campus and Delta state University of Education Agbor, the population was adopted as the sample. Thus, the comprehensive sampling technique was adopted. All seventy-six (76) Business education lectures from both institutions were used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire, which was structured by the researcher and validated by experts in Measurement and Evaluation Department of Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba for face and content validation. To ensure the consistency of the validated instrument, a pilot study was carried out on five (5) lecturers in Delta state University Abraka using test-re-test method. Pearson Moment Correlation coefficient was used to ascertain the reliability and it yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.75 which showed that instrument is reliable. Seventy-six (76) copies of the validated questionnaire items were administered on business education lecturers in both University of Benin, Asaba Campus and Delta state University of Education Agbor by the researcher with the help of 2 research assistants and the researcher insured 100% return of the copies of instrument and analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The analysis revealed among others that instructional materials such as projectors, computers, printers, photocopier machines, cash books, public address system and internet are rarely used in tertiary institutions in Delta state for teaching business education while such materials as interactive whiteboard, improvised instructional materials and photographs are widely used for teaching and due to inadequate funding, it is difficult to purchase and use computers, projectors, power generators, purchase public address systems, photocopier machines and install internet for teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta state among others. Based on the findings, the researchers suggest among others that government should make funds available to universities in the state so as to purchase the instructional materials such as projectors, computers, printers, photocopier machines, cash books, public address systems and install internet for effective teaching of Business Education and management of universities in the state should ensure that the funds made available are judiciously utilized.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

In modern teaching-learning situations, utilization of instructional resources have become prominent because several experts and scholars are of the view that teaching will be better done if teaching aids are used as students may stand to learn better if they are exposed to the use of teaching materials, no matter how prototype it would be. The provision of instructional materials is supposed to cut across the four sensory organs viz-a-viz sight, hearing, touch and feeling. The proven contribution of teaching aids to the education process and the availability of some many education processes and different instructional materials offer to teachers’ opportunities to enrich and improve their teaching role.

Every instructional material used for teaching is an aid. Such aids like chalkboard, books, chart, newspapers, modern pictures, radio, tape recorder, posters are good examples of teaching aids for teaching Business Education. Learning could also be made pleasurable, if there are textbooks and other materials in the library so that students can, after being guided and perhaps, through group or individual instructions, be asked to practice on their own. Olutola (2014) opined that the idea of excellence in any school depend on the goal set for itself, but goals set in turn, depends on what the teachers are capable of accomplishing in the teaching-learning process that show permanent change in the behaviour of the students.

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Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some forms of simulation. Adekunle (2015) noted that teaching materials in Business Education means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are given the chance to learn through more senses than one, they can learn faster and easier. The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more. Furthermore, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic. Larson (2017) who noted that the use of electronically mediated instruction to duplicate the traditional face to face classroom has resulted in a shift from teacher-centered to student-centered classes. In this situation, the responsibility for learning is shifted to the students. The teacher facilitates the learning by acting as a coach, resource guide and companion in learning.

Ikerionwu (2016) refers to instructional materials as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. Similarly, Ezegbe (2014) classified them into two as visual materials, made up of reading and non-reading and audiovisual; comprising electrically operated and non-electrically operated materials. Osakwe (2014) summarized these materials as textual like books, audio-visual and human materials. He stated that these materials are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful Business Education teaching and learning situation.

The purpose of instructional materials is to promote efficiency in education by improving the quality of teaching and learning. According to Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Imogie (2014), these materials such as audio tape recorders, video tape recorders, slide projectors, opaque projectors, overhead projectors, still pictures, programmed instruction, filmstrips, maps, chart, graphs and many more offer a variety of learning experiences individually or in combination to meet different teaching and learning experiences.

Heinecke (2014) observed that while some educators are fascinated by the potential of instructional materials in enhancing teaching and learning, other teachers lagged behind in using instructional materials to teach. However, achieving these laudable goals of conscientious utilization of instructional materials used in Business Education teaching and learning has been very challenging in developing countries such as Nigeria. As noted by Garba (2016), the Nigerian teacher operates from a deficient environment where teaching and learning is seriously impoverished particularly in the rural set-up. Even in the urban areas only few schools are connected to the national grid while virtually all the rural schools do not enjoy basic facilities like pipe borne water and electricity.

Teachers are faced with diverse challenges in the use of instructional materials in teaching Business Education, particularly at the university level such as the unavailability of instructional materials, overpopulated classroom and teachers’ attitude towards the use of instructional materials. According to Justin (2015), instructional materials for teaching Business Education are in short supply which has affected the teaching and learning of the subject. Some of the materials needed to teach Business Education are not available while some are outdated which make teachers not to be interested in using instructional materials because of the stress one has to go through just to get instructional materials. Justin (2015) opined that classroom environment affects the use of instructional materials. The teachers find it difficult to use instructional materials in overpopulated classrooms because of the noise from students and the time spent in explaining certain concepts using instructional materials which has made many teachers to see the use of instructional materials as a waste of time.

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The use of instructional materials in teaching business education at the university level is very important. This is because the students taught at this level are being prepared to become teachers who will teach the younger generation. When instructional materials are effectively used in teaching business education in universities helps to arrest and sustain their interest bringing about excellent performance in the subjects. This according to Olaniyi (2017) helps the teacher to achieve the set objectives.  When real objects or improvised instructional materials are brought to the class, the students gets interested in whatever that is being taught, helps them understand better and brings about better retention.

Lecturers at the university level experience whole lots of challenges in an attempt to use instructional materials in teaching business education. Some of the challenges encountered according Austin (2016) includes lack of funding and large classroom size. He stated that due to inadequate funding, lecturers find it difficult to purchase the instructional materials required for teaching business education. The little instructional materials available are hardly utilize due to the large number of students in a lecture session in Universities. Students find it difficult to see what is being demonstrated by the lecturer, thereby by defeating the original aim of using instructional materials which is to make teaching more real and concrete.  Hence the need to ascertain the factors affecting the effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta State.

 Statement of the Problem

Importance of the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning cannot be over-emphasized. This is because students tend to comprehend faster if they are shown the real-life examples of what they are being taught. It makes teaching lively, real and concrete.

The use of instructional materials in teaching business education at the university level in Delta state is a matter of concern to many educators and scholars. This is because the teaching of business education has been centered on the traditional teaching in which the teacher teaches the students without instructional materials. This could be as a result of many factors such as cost of the instructional materials, unavailability, negative attitude towards the use of instructional materials and the overcrowded classrooms in the universities.

A careful looked at some Universities in Nigeria and Delta state in particular, instructional materials are hardly available, the few resources available are hardly utilized in teaching business education which grope most of the students stuffed with theoretical knowledge at the expense of practical skill training which affects their academic achievements. These statements agree with the report of National Educational Research and Development Centre (NERDC) (2004) which confirmed that human and material resources are inadequate in the teaching and learning of vocational business education. Similarly, Azih (2018) found that students offering Business Education in Universities find it difficult to acquire the needed skills and competencies as a result of lack of adequate resources in the schools.

Non-utilization of instructional materials in teaching business education at the university level has been attributed to factors such as cost of preparing or buying the materials, overcrowded classrooms, inadequate funding, lecturers’ attitude and so on. This has become a matter of concern to educators and scholars. The government has put a lot in place to ensure that instructional materials are made available in teaching business education at the university level. Despite the efforts made by the government in ensuring that instructional materials are made available and effectively utilized, the situation remains the same. This could be as a result of poor maintenance culture and the negative attitude of some lecturers towards the use of instructional materials in teaching business education. This has affected the teaching of business education which in turns affects students’ academic performance in the subject. Justin (2017) is of the opinion that ineffective utilization of instructional materials in teaching business education affects the teaching of the subject which in turn affects the overall performance of students.

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It is against this backdrop that the study is carried out to ascertain the factors affecting the effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta State.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to ascertain the factors affecting the effective utilization in teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta State. Specially, the study is aimed at ascertaining:

  1. The kinds of instructional materials used in teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta state.
  2. The effect of inadequate funding on the effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta state.
  • The effect of classroom size on the effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta state.

Research Question

To effectively carry out the study, the following questions were raised:

  1. What are the kinds of instructional materials used in teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta state?
  2. How does inadequate funding affect the effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta state?
  • How does classroom size affect the effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta state?

Significance of the Study

The study of this nature would be of benefit to students, lecturers, government, researchers and the field of Business Education.

The study could be of immense benefit to students because it will make them understand the kind of instructional materials used in teaching Business Education. It could also enable understand the effects of inadequate funding and class size on the effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Business Education.

The study could also benefit the lecturers in the sense that it would enable them understand the how inadequate funding and class size affect the effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Business Education in Universities in the state. This could enable them work with the government in tackling the said challenges for improved teaching and learning.

It could also be of benefit to the government by calling their attention to the unavailability of instructional materials for teaching Business Education at the University level in Delta state which is as a result of inadequate funding. This could help them release more funds to universities so as to provide adequate instructional materials. The findings of the study could also bring to their notice the effect of class size and lectures’ attitude on the effective utilizat5ion of instructional materials in teaching Business Education and the way to tackle the challenges.

Finally, the study could add to the existing literature in the field of Business Education which could serve as a reference material for researcher who may wish to carry out similar study.

Scope of the Study

This study is delimited to the factors affecting the effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Business Education in Universities in Delta State. The study is further delimited to factors affecting the effective utilization of instructional materials teaching Business Education in University of Benin Asaba Campus and Delta state University of Education Agbor, Delta State. With particular emphasis on kinds of instructional materials used in teaching business education, effect of inadequate funding and classroom size on the effective utilization of instructional material in teaching business education in Universities.


Pages:  63

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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