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The Extent Of Use Of Instructional Materials For Effective Teaching And Learning Of Agricultural Science In Mercy High Girls Secondary School In Okigwe, Imo State

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ABSTRACT

This study focuses primarily on the extent of use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of agricultural science in mercy high girls secondary school in Okigwe, Imo state. Theory of cognitive development formed the foundation for this study. The research design used for the purpose of this study is the survey method. For this study, the sample size consists of 100 responds comprising of 25 teachers and 75 students teaching and learning agricultural science from Mercy High Girls Secondary School in Okigwe, Imo State. The main analysis technique employed is the chi-square, it is used to test the hypotheses while simple percentage is used for the research questions. Based on the data presented, analyzed and interpreted, the researcher is able to come out with the followings findings: the first analysis reveals that the use of instructional materials has significant relationship between the overall performance of students in the teaching and learning of agricultural science; the second finding shows that the selection of relevant materials and their usage have significant relationship with the teaching and learning of agricultural science; the third findings reveals that the availability of instructional materials has significant relationship with effective teaching and learning of agricultural science and The fourth and the last finding reveals that there is a significant relationship in the teaching and learning of agricultural science when teachers improvise where original ones are not available. Based on the finding of the study, the researcher recommended that the government and the school heads should ensure that instructional materials are available in schools and in selecting instructional materials, the teachers should ensure that the material selected is commensurate to the topic and age level of the students.

Chapter one

INTRODUCTION

This chapter is discussed under the following subheadings: background to study, statement of the problem, scope of the study, purpose of the study, significance of the study and research questions.

Background of the Study

Science is a great enterprise which nations depend on, in-order to advance technologically. Science therefore, is receiving much emphasis in education because of its significance and relevance to life and society. Agriculture as a branch of science and the prerequisite subject for many fields of learning contributes immensely to the technological growth of the nation. This includes medicine, forestry, biology, biotechnology and nursing. The study of Agriculture in senior secondary school can equip students with useful concepts, principles and theories that will enable them face the challenges before and after graduation.

Effective teaching of any subject will not only stimulates student’s interest in the subject but also enhance their achievement in the examination. To achieve effective teaching and learning process, there is the need for use of instructional materials. Instructional materials are the different teaching aids or apparatus which a classroom teacher employs to facilitate his or her teaching for the achievement of the stated objective. Agun (2022) defined instructional materials as those materials which are helpful to the teachers and students and which maximize learning in various areas. The use of instructional materials in teaching of agricultural science is very important because it provides a concrete basis for conceptual thinking motivates people to learn and captures pupils’ imagination if used correctly (Ajalla, 2017).

Science has been regarded as the bedrock of modern day technological breakthrough is built. Nowadays, countries all over the world, especially the developing ones like Nigeria, are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, since the world is turning Scientific and all proper functioning of lives depend greatly on Science. According to Ogunleye (2022), Science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe. Without the applications of science, it would have been difficult for man to explore the other planets of the universe.

Science comprises the basic disciplines such a Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Agriculture. Many investigations have shown that secondary school students are exhibiting dwindling interest in Science (Esiobu, 2015).

Studies have revealed that the performance of Nigerian students in Ordinary Level Agriculture was generally and consistently poor over the years (Akanbi, 2013; Omosewo, 2019). Poor academic achievement in Physics could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This imply that the mastery of Agriculture concepts might not be fully achieved without the use of instructional materials. The teaching and learning of Agriculture without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Franzer , Okebukola and Jegede (2012) stressed that a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality. Bassey (2012) opined that Science is resource intensive, and in a period of economic recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for the teaching and learning of Agriculture in schools adequately. A situation that is further compounded by the galloping inflation in the country and many at times, some of the imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found expensive and irrelevant; hence the need to produce materials locally.

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Researchers such as Obioha (2016) and Ogunleye (2012) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching Science subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. There is the need therefore, for improvisation. Adebimpe (2017) and Daramola, (2018) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned training programme on improvisation.

The National Policy on Education (FME, 2014) emphasizes the need for teaching and learning of science processes and principles. The policy recommends practical, exploratory and experimental methods of teaching. In this regards, Okebukola (2014) stated that the basic tools that science uses in the learning of science processes are the instructional materials. Studies have shown that the use of instructional materials have improved achievement (George, 2018) and Nwagbo (2016). Instructional materials are wide varieties of equipment and materials use for teaching and learning by teachers to stimulate self-activity on the part of the students. The teaching of Agriculture without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Poor academic achievement in Agriculture could also be attributed to many factors such as, low interest of students in Agriculture, inadequate motivation from teacher, poor incentives to agriculture teachers, lack of adequate supply of instructional material, lack of qualified teachers, and use of teacher centered instructional strategies, inadequate use of instructional materials and use of abstract standardized materials. Among these factors, teacher’s use of abstract standardized instructional strategy is considered as an important factor in this study.

This implies that the mastery of Agriculture concepts might not be fully achieved without the use of instructional resources that the students are abreast with. The teaching of Agriculture without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Folorunso (2014) observed that there is lack of adequate and appropriate instructional resources for effective teaching of Agriculture in schools. For Ibitoye and Fape (2007), the poor achievement in agriculture was traced to poor usage of instructional resources for agriculture teaching and learning, poor state of infrastructure facilities, large class size, poor teaching, use of faulty assessment practice, and inadequacy of quality teachers. According to Okebukola (2014), the poor state of laboratory facilities and inadequate use of instructional materials has constituted a cog in the wheel of students’ achievement in Agriculture in the Senior School Examination. The verbal exposition does not promote skill acquisition, objectivity, and critical thinking abilities that will enable the child to function effectively in the society. This according to the researcher leads to poor achievement of students in the subject. Okebukola and Jegede (2016) stressed that a professionally qualified Agriculture teacher no matter how well trained, would be unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and material resources necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.

The report of West African Examination Council (WAEC) on the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) (2011) on student enrolment and performance in Nigeria by subject, grade, and sex revealed low enrolment of girls for science subjects as well as low academic achievement in agriculture and other science subjects and the persistent poor achievement of students in biology at senior school certificate examination (WAEC; Chief Examiner’s report 2007-2010), leaves one in doubt about the effectiveness of instructional materials and teaching methods popularly used by the agriculture teachers for the teaching and learning of agriculture.

On this note, resources are seen as materials, which help in doing something. For example, flour, sugar, water, and so on serve as resources for the preparation of bread or cake. In the classroom situation, resources are materials or devices that are used to facilitate teaching and learning. National Teachers Institute (2010) reported that resources in the classroom can be classified into two broad categories, those that appeal to the sense of sight which are classified as visual resources and those which appeal to the sense of hearing, classified as audio materials. There are also those that combine both features and are classified as audio-visual (A-V) materials. Isola (2010) referred to instructional resources as objects or devices, which help the teacher to make a lesson much clearer to the learner. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or physical objects, which provide sound, visual, or both to the sense organs during teaching (Agina-obu, 2015). The teaching of Agriculture cannot be done effectively without interaction between the teacher, students and the environmental resources. The Agriculture curriculum is planned to enable the teacher use activity oriented, child-centred approach (guided inquiry) to teach (Nzewi & Nwosu, 2010). However, evidence from research has shown that instructional materials, resources and equipments for science, especially agriculture are either in short supply or are completely lacking in schools to the extent that most teachers end up with verbal exposition of scientific principles, facts and concepts. Studies have also revealed that the achievement of Nigerian students in Ordinary Level Agriculture was generally and consistently poor over the years (Nwagbo, 2010). This has been a major source of concern to the school administrators, parents and the government at large. Bassey (2012) opined that Agriculture is resource intensive, and in an era of poor funding or scarcity of resources, it may be very difficult to find some of the original materials and equipment for the teaching of Agriculture in schools adequately. A situation that is further compounded by the galloping inflation in the country and many at times, some of the imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found to be expensive and irrelevant ;hence the need to produce materials locally. Researchers such as Ogunleye (2012) and Obioha (2016) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching agriculture in secondary schools in Nigeria. The authors further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions in most cases. According to Abolade (2014), some of the factory produced/imported instructional materials have also been discovered to be based on foreign ideas and culture. It is against this background that the need to fashion out ways by which local resources can be used for developing instructional materials becomes necessary. There is the need therefore, for improvisation. National policy on Education (2004) further stated that the provision and use of available instructional materials for teaching will lay a sound bases for scientific and reflective thinking among students. The real materials that are the conventional instructional materials are imported or factory made laboratory equipments for science teaching. Examples of conventional instructional materials are: microscope, herbarium, laboratory reagents, laboratory glassware, Bunsen burner, tripod stand. However, if these conventional Instructional Materials are not available or inadequate, they can be locally made by using resources in the environment as alternative. These will include used electrical bulb for round bottom flask; beverage tins for convex and concave mirror; juices of unripe orange as acid, solution of ash from wood as base, candle or stove as burner, teaspoon for spatula (Okebukola, 2016). Improvised instructional materials may not be identical with the conventional one; therefore teachers should be skilful in their handling and using them (Igwe, 2013). Improvisation requires a considerable development through imaginative planning and good knowledge.

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Statement of the Problem

The use of instructional materials in secondary schools is not encouraging. As a result, it makes the morale and interest of the students in agricultural science low. This is because teachers adopt the verbalistic and theoretical method as a way of teaching and learning the subject, mainly due to non- availability of instructional material in schools. The question now is, to what extent does the use of instructional materials effect learning and students achievement in agricultural science science in secondary schools.

In spite of the desire for technological development, couple with the fact that Agriculture is a very vital subject for technological development and as such, its teaching and learning as well as students’ poor academic performance have become a source of concerns to all stakeholders. The problem of the present study is to investigate  the extent of use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of agricultural science in senior secondary schools

Scope of the study

The scope of the study on the “Extent of Use of Instructional Materials for Effective Teaching and Learning of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools,” with a focus on Mercy High Girls Secondary School in Okigwe, Imo State, involves investigating various aspects related to instructional material integration in agricultural science education. Specifically, the study cover the meaning of instructional materials, instructional materials and academic achievement, factors that affect the use of instructional resources, factors affecting improvisation of instructional materials, science process skills, resources in teaching/learning process, strategies for enhancing teachers’ competence in the use of instructional materials and types of ICT-driven instructional aids, how ICT-driven instructional aids can improve qualitative education in Nigeria.

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Purpose of Study

This study focuses primarily on the extent of use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of agricultural science in mercy high girls secondary school in Okigwe, Imo state. Specifically, the study set out to achieve the following objectives.

  1. To determine the effect of instructional material on students performing in agricultural science.
  2. To find out why secondary schools teachers find it difficult to select relevant instructional material toward the teaching and learning of agricultural science.
  3. To find out to what extent instructional materials are available in teaching and learning of agricultural.
  4. To determine the possible way of improving the instructional materials that will facilitate the teaching and learning of agricultural science.

Significance of the Study

The theoretical significance of this study is anchored on the cognitive development theory of Jean Piaget. According to Piaget, children develop knowledge by inventing or constructing reality out of experience and thus mix their observation with their ideas about how the world works. Piaget’s theory of intellectual development holds that cognitive development takes place from active interaction of the child with his environment. This means that the basis of learning is the child’s own ability as he interacts with his physical and social environment. Piaget is of the opinion that a child must act on the objects in his environment for him to learn. This means that he should be actively involved not be passive. The active involvement of the child may be in form of direct manipulation, visual observation or through mental or internal transportation or change. Therefore, this study will help to validate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development or question the theory.

This study will be useful to classroom teachers, curriculum planners, students, researchers and parents. For teachers they will be better informed on how to help and guide their students on better way of producing instructional materials. The teachers can also engage students to do some of the illustrations during biology instructions.

This study will help to develop problem solving skill in students and will also help student to be more resourceful during lessons. The study could be beneficial to curriculum planners who would design functional curriculum by taking into considerations students teachers instructional materials.

The findings of this study, if discussed in workshops and seminars will guide the choice of   instructional materials used in the teaching/learning process in agriculture and other subject areas. The findings of this study will equally help to alleviate the problem of the scarcity of instructional materials for biology teaching/learning.

The results of the study could provide information to researchers interested in working on student-teachers generated instructional materials in other subject areas. This may help them to get more information on the efficacy of improvisation, especially researchers in the area of science and technology. Parents will be better informed on how to encourage and help their wards to produce improvised materials. This may be in form of sourcing local materials and providing fund for those that cannot be found in their environment.

Research Questions

  1. To what extent would the use of instructional material influence the students’ performance in the teaching and learning of agricultural science?
  2. To what extent would the selection of relevant materials influence the teaching and learning of agricultural science?
  3. To what extent are instructional materials available to students of agricultural science in Mercy High Girls Secondary School in Okigwe, Imo State?
  4. To what extent do teachers improvise instructional materials to facilitate the teaching and learning of agricultural science?

Hypotheses

In order to give answers to the research questions, the following null hypothesis were formulated.

  1. There is no significant relationship between the use of instructional materials and the overall performance of student in the teaching and learning of agricultural science.
  2. There is no significant relationship between the selection of relevant materials and their usage in the teaching and learning of agricultural science.
  3. There is no significant relationship between the availability of instructional materials and effective implementation in the teaching and learning of agricultural science.
  4. There is no significant relationship between the teaching and learning of agricultural science where there are no improvised teaching aids.

    Pages:  67

    Category: Project

    Format:  Word & PDF               

    Chapters: 1-5                                          

    Source: Imsuinfo

    Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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