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Hospitality & Tourism Management

The Effect Of Psychological Factors On Demand For Urban Domestic Tourism In Nigeria




This study examined the effect of psychological factors on demand for urban domestic tourism in Nigeria  and conducted in selected tourist destinations within Abuja and Calabar town. The study adopted a survey research design. The sample size was 384 respondents: 254 respondents from Abuja city and 130 respondents from Calabar town surveyed using multistage sampling procedure. This study revealed that perception, learning, and motivation push factors specifically self esteem, personal confidence, going to study, relieve stress, be together with family, escape from normal routine, need to be recognized, encounter different cultures and lifestyles, visit new places, annual leave, fun and enjoyment, enrich myself intellectually, sense of adventure, conferences, religion pilgrimage, and disposable income, had major influences on demand for urban domestic tourism. This study recommends players in the tourism and hospitality industry to portray good images of tourist destinations, develop tourism products and services of value as well as unforgettable experiences that will satisfy domestic tourist needs.



1.1     Background of Study

Nigeria is endowed with a distinctive combination of tourist attractions spread all over the country that not only bring international tourists from all over the world but also local tourists too. For a long period of time, Nigeria has long been oriented towards international markets which has proved detrimental because of the seasonality, political, social, economic and competitive factors associated with international tourism (Nigeria Economic Report, 2009; Ndivo et al., 2012). It is believed that for the tourism industry to succeed, international and domestic tourism should complement each other (Mariki et al., 2011). It essential therefore, for Nigeria to promote domestic tourism so as to have continued tourism operations throughout the year and enhance economic growth. An increasingly important and fast growing form of tourism that can significantly contribute to the growth of domestic tourism in Nigeria is urban tourism. Urban tourism brings significant economic benefits and plays a vital role in generating income and maintenance of public services and infrastructure in the urban areas, therefore it is a crucial resource for local residents and cities (WTO, 2012).

See also  Service Management In The Tourism Industry, A study of Oguta Crystal Lake area, Imo State

Even though most tourism activities all over the world takes place in urban areas, it is only of late that it has been recognized as an important sector of tourism (Aksoz and Bac, 2012). Urban tourism has played a major role in significantly contributing to the economical increase of most European cities (Delitheou et al., 2010) and has been a new pillar industry for the economic development of Shangai (Hong, 2014). The growth of urban tourism has been stimulated by cultural and historical attractions, event and shopping attractions as well as business travel, thereby providing opportunities for urban regeneration such as those experienced in Glasgow (Scotland), Barcelona in Spain and Baltimore (USA) (Çiraci et al., 2008; Medlick, 2003). For a long time, tourism has been associated with locals travelling from urban areas to tourist resorts and rural areas, however, in recent times urban tourism has gained popularity as many cities have transformed into major tourist destinations (Garbea, 2013).

It has been noted that majority of the local population in Nigeria do engage in some form of domestic tourism such as family holiday trips to rural homes, sightseeing and picnics especially during public holidays and school holidays (Ondicho, 2003). The popularity of engaging in domestic tourism is increasing particularly among wealthy Nigerians who take advantage of price discounts during low seasons to stay at the beach resorts whereas those who cannot afford overnight trips opt to visit parks as excursionists or day trippers (Ondicho, 2003). There is potential for growth of urban domestic tourism in Nigeria, Ndivo et al., (2012) found out that Nigerian citizens considered taking a holiday as being significant pointing out to the fact that local demand for tourism exists.

According to Fratu (2011), understanding needs and decision processes of consumers is highly significant for the marketing activity since it enables marketing managers to make better decisions, forecast future behaviour, and to have an actual and unbiased view of what triggers consumer demand. Additionally, it may assist in new product development, enhanced service delivery methods, better marketing strategies and the creation of a distinctive competitive advantage (Vuuren and Slabbert, 2011). Fratu (2011), further states that consumer demand can be understood by knowing who is the key person in the buying decision, what criteria their choices are based on, how, where and when do they buy. One important aspect that is helpful in determining tourism consumer behaviour is psychological factors. Mott (2015), argues that the success of a firm in positioning their brands as offering the right solution to the needs or problems of consumers, requires an understanding of the psychological tenets that predict and explain what people purchase. It is important to understand the psychological factors that should be driving domestic tourists to visit urban tourist destinations as this will enable the tourism sector to segment, target, differentiate and position tourist destinations to suit the domestic market.

See also  Consumer Experience And Destination Loyalty In Tourist Site

1.2     Statement of Problem

Tourism is a concomitant to sustainable development. It is a great generator of economic wealth for developed countries like United State America Germany, Japan, France and Canada. The challenge of international tourism has been accepted by few African countries like Nigeria, Tanzania, Botswana, Egypt and Algeria. These countries are now reaping the socio-economic and psychological benefits that are associated with tourism development. In Nigeria, little attention has been given to tourism development (Ojo, 1978; Afolabi 1992). The reason for this is not unconnected with the low economic structure as well as the rural economic base of the country. However, the nation is very rich both in ecology and culture. It has a wide variety of biodiversity. It is equally blessed with many traditional festivals and cultural attractions.

On this note, Ikporukpo (1993) noted that the multiplicity of cultures in the country provides a good setting for the evolution of various cultural heritage-based tourist facilities. Imo State, Nigeria has abundant tourism resources in their urban and rural places. There are several potentials for relaxation and holiday in their tourist attractions. The vistas of excellence in Imo State include rocky mountains, unique plants, forest reserves, parks, gardens, warm springs, lakes, buildings of historical significance, and several other man-made and natural features. The main motivation for this study lies in the fact that in spite of the numerous tourism potentials of the state, the level of participation in tourism is very low. This is due partly to ignorance of the benefits of tourism and mainly to the poor development state of the potentials. Thus, this study aims at awakening individuals, the government, parastatals, policy makers, nongovernmental organizations and tourists to the broad duty of moving towards effect of psychological factors on demand for urban tourism in the state.

See also  Domestic Tourism In Imo State

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are to:-

  1. to understand the psychological factors that should be driving domestic tourists to visit urban tourist destinations
  2. identify the effect of psychological factors on demand for urban tourism in Nigeria
  • examine the level of patronage of the tourism potentials as well as the relative preferences for tourist attractions

1.4     Research Questions

  1. What are the psychological factors that drives domestic tourist to urban destinations?
  2. What are the effects of these factors on demand to urban tourism in Nigeria?
  3. What is the level of patronage of these tourism potentials for tourist attractions?

 1.5     Hypothesis

H0: There is no significant relationship between psychological factors affecting demand on urban tourism and level of patronage of tourist sites.

H1: There is a significant relationship between psychological factors affecting demand on urban tourism and level of patronage of tourist sites.

1.6     Significance of the Study

Findings from this work would enhance the interest of the government, policy makers and individuals in the development of countryside tourism potentials.

It will help in driving domestic tourists to visit tourist destinations, where destination marketers should understand the psychological factors that influence demand for domestic tourism so that they can design, package, communicate and position and reposition tourism products that cater for the needs and wants of domestic tourists.

Players in the tourism and hospitality industry should portray good images of tourist destinations, develop tourism products and services of value, and offer unforgettable experiences. Psychological factors also provides a base through which destination marketers can use to segment and target the domestic tourism market with the right product offerings using the right target market strategies.

Pages:  35

Category: Seminar

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo                                     

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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