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The critical evaluation of the impact of digital switchover on the electronic media




The study is on “The critical evaluation of the impact of digital switchover on the electronic media”. The study has three objectives and four research questions.  Descriptive research design was used for the study.  The population of this study comprises of Island and Oshodi Areas of Lagos State, students of Imo State University and Owerri Metropolitan Area of Imo State in Owerri-West who are deeply involved in the management of secondary schools. The findings of this study revealed that the digital switch-over can bring a good economic boost. The data got with regards to principles of broadcast policies making namely; public interest, diversity, localism and competition as the dependent variables while the digital migration in Nigeria is the independent variable. This is a new technology with a more efficient way of transmitting quality sound and pictures by turning them into computerized data. The benefits of digital television over analogue includes; quality content production, good reception, possibilities of huge spectrum for broadcasting, access to internet, quality signal, supporting different picture format, robust to noise, easy to scramble signals, etc. Based on the findings, the study therefore recommends that since poor weather conditions are likely to cause adverse effects on digital transmission, more weather friendly equipments should be used in order to overcome this problem. Further study should seek to answer the following questions; does the digital television (Broadcasting) serve better than the analogue which has been in use for years before the advent of modern technology? Is it faster than the former (analogue)?



The term digital broadcasting is a catch all term for the use of electrical signal that are a sequence for discrete number. Analog broadcasting uses electrical signals that vary in a continuous way. The shift from analog to digital is an inevitable one that has taken place in a virtually all electronic system over the past decades. Digital signals are much more flexible can be squeezed into smaller space and open up many opportunities than analog signals. The case of making the transition is a self-evident and beneficial as was changing transport from horse to motor-cars. The change could bring a great deal more channels for viewers, the option of higher quality image multimedia and more involving and inclusive television.

For consumers, the means of watching television is simple and has remained largely unchanged since the 1950. Push a button and news from around the world memorable stop joint images of far flung places and beamed directly to you yet behind the sense television is a complicated affair working as Head of

Engineers. I have found memories of rooms full of canister of films the whirring of video tape machine towering transmitter with complicated wiring and expensive audio console all working to air the program schedule that was planned weeks before transmission yet television is evolving as we move towards the digital era and most of the equipments that I used is now obsolete. The shift towards digital broadcast means that consumer can enjoy a wider variety of shows on multiple channels with a better quality of broadcast. It also reduces power and energy consumption and spectrum efficiency which bring a host of associated benefits for consumer and broadcasters. But this shift from analog to digital broadcasting also brings its own set of challenges. The digital switchover is the name given to the process of changing from analog to digital TV broadcasting. On the 16th June, 2006, a treaty agreement was reached at the conclusion of I.T.U Regional Radio communication Conference (RRC) in Geneva heralding the development of all digital terrestrial broadcast service for sound and television. The digitization in Europe, Africa, Middle East, and the Islamic Republic of Iran by a target date of June, 2015 represent a major

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milestone towards establishing a more equipped cable. Just and people centered information society connecting the unconnected in underserved and remote communities and closing digital divide. The new digital GE06 plan provides not only the possibilities for strutted development of digital terrestrial broadcasting but also sufficient flexibilities for adaptation to the changing telecommunication environment. Many people today will be familiar with analogue broadcasting having a restricted choice of programming to limited space for channel having to tune the t.v to your region to ensure you pick up broadcast having to play with the antennae to get smooth uninterrupted signal but as we move towards all these digital, this means of broadcast is becoming redundant.

With the advancement of digital technology, we are now able to broadcast more efficiently in comparison to analogue. Firstly, analogue television broadcast occupies a large amount of spectrum a finite natural resources and the electro-magnetic channel 6MHZ to 8MHZ band width. The same channel could carry a multiplex of up to 20 digital programmes of equivalent quality and as spectrum of limited resources.

This is a valuable saving the spectrum that now being freed up as a result of the switch-over is known as digital divided.

1.2                Background of the Study

Digital broadcasting is a new technology where audio, video and data are transmitted over airwaves like computer. The waves in digital broadcasting are encoded to ensure enhanced picture and sound quality. Following this, the international telecommunication union after its congress in Geneva, Switzerland in 2006  set June in 2015 as the deadline as the entire world as switch over date from the current mode of broadcasting to the ultra-modern digital terrestrial of broadcasting. However, before we go further on this discourse, let us take a brief history of television. The advent of television radically affected radio forcing it from it’s primary position in mass communication to a secondary role. On early milestone was the successful transmission of image in 1884 by German inventor, Paul Nipkozo. His mechanical system known as the Rotating or Mpkwo was further developed by Charles Francis Jekins who made a telecast of a short film to the U.S government officials in Washington D.C in 1925 and by Scottish scientist John

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Logie Bard who broadcast a televised image in 1926 to an audience at the Royal Academy of Science in London. In 1428, Herbert was an engineer working at ATET offered what was perhaps a most spectacular demonstration of mechanical television to that point, transmitting colour image of a bouquet of roses and an American to two audience simultaneously in New York City and Washington D.C.

In 1987, Japanse demonstrated research and experiments. In 1987, analog MGH definition T.V system (called muse) and in 1990, General Instrument video cipher division announced DIGITAL HI-DEFINITION SYSTEM. This served as a forerunner to the internet world wide web of the 1990s which ushered in new global communication system for the 21st century.

In November 2007, the National Broadcasting Commission briefed the 38th National Council on Information and Communication in Jos on the imperatives of digitization and urgent need for the nation to take advantage of this inevitable global phenomenon.

In December 2007, His Excellency, President Umaru Musa Yar’adua approved that, the commission should set in motion and pilot Nigeria’s digitization programme towards the target date of June in 2012.

Digitization programme commenced in Abuja on June 3, 2008 following a meeting of stakeholders in the broadcast industry where forum underscored the need for Nigeria to embrace the new technology so that the country will not be turned into a dumping ground for obsolete analogue equipments. All broadcast stations in Nigeria whether television, radio, public or privately owned will be matched to move from analogue to digital broadcasting. This movement from analog to digital broadcasting is based on the overwhelming benefits of digital broadcasting over the analog. More so, this has posed a lot of challenges to the Nigerian Government and the broadcast station.

1.3          Statement of the Problem

The analog television transmitters that were once useful for beaming pictures to television sets are gradually being replaced with the High Definition Television and the Nigeria Broadcast


industry has been given the target date of June 2012 as switch-over date.

This work seeks to examine the transmission from analog broadcasting in Nigeria.

Objectives of the Study

The main objectives will be achieved through addressing topics related to digital divide from the perspective of accessibility, availability utilization awareness and sustainability for the project.

  1. Increasing the accessibility of the service, increasing the availability of service by performing analysis and implementation of potential technical solution based on Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) network (apart from satellite signal distribution) are namely considered to offer the most efficient way to cover rural areas whereas the completion of Analogue to digital switch-over process. This technology platform is not so limited by the scarcity of the radio spectrum.
  2. Increasing the availability of services by performing analysis and implementing push based internet services in order to offers internet user experience those groups who don’t have access because of limitations such as digital divide and focus will be based on already existing public service such a government and health alarming entertainment,
  3. Media and others which will be accessed through commonly used T.V sets, set up boxes or USB receiver and navigated through simple t.v remote.
    • Research Questions
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This question would be raised on;

  1. What are the benefits of digital broadcasting over the analog?
  2. What are the implications of digital technology over the analog?
  3. What is the impact of digital broadcasting?
  4. What challenges does the transition from analog technology to digital technology pose for broadcasting station in Nigeria?

Enabling the Utilization of New and Prosperous Business Concepts

By adapting the regulatory framework allowing all grant licenses for the network operators and content providers/aggregators in case of non-television service since this will allow them to use spectrum released by the Analogue to digital switchover process and free capacity on existing television multiplexes and fast of the implementation of additional service.

Increasing Awareness

By promoting the solution(s) and service on the basis of concrete actions such as pilot presentation and other supporting activities with a goal to familiarize with and mobilize the stakeholders towards the prospects of new solutions content and service.

Assuring sustainability by analyzing the outcome of executed awareness activities and preparing the guidelines studies tools and concrete business case modeling which shall be supported by expert capacity.

  • Research Hypothesis
  1. Ho: There is no digital broadcasting AIT.

H1: There is digital broadcasting in AIT.

  1. H0: The impact of digital broadcasting is AIT is 1020.

H1: The impact of digital broadcasting in AIT is high.

1.6          Significance of the Study

The research of the study tends to make Nigerians know that, Nigeria Digital Switchover Programme has today become the most talk of the town. In Africa, it was designed by Nigerians and it’s being implemented by Nigerians.

This is not the case in quite a number of setting in Africa and the consequence is that, we are constantly receiving enquiries and visits from other African countries to understand the work we have done.

  • Scope of the Study

The scope of this study centers on the critical evaluation of the impact of digital switchover on the electronic media.

  • Assumptions of the Study

Economists in the department of trade and industry, the department of culture, media and sport and (up to December, 2003) the Radio communication agency has developed a model to evaluate the cost and benefits to the U.K of competing digital switchover the switching off of analogue terrestrial transmission and subsequent use of the UHF spectrum is compared with continuity with both analogue and digital transmissions.

  • Limitations of the Study

The study was constrained by the time and some inability of some respondent to give answers to questions without some form of hesitation and delay.

Pages:  54

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF        

Chapters: 1-5                                 

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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