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Sociology

The Challenges Of Poverty Reduction In Nigeria: A Case Study Of Imo State (1999-2009)

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Abstract

This study started with the foresight of the entire study comprising the introduction of the subject matter of the research work which is “the challenges of poverty reduction in Nigeria: A case study of Imo State (1999-2009) In the review of literature, it was discovered that there are various opinions to the explanation of poverty in Nigeria. While some see poverty as the lack of basic amenities, others see poverty as poor investment in human capital on the whole, there was a convergence among different authors that Nigerians are poor.

The survey study shows that the awareness level of Poverty reduction programes are quite okay, but the implementation level remains very minimal in Imo State. The beneficiaries of these programmes or activities in Imo State are very few, this is traced to the fact that not much persons know that such programmes exist in the local government area. Majority of the people of Imo State earn low income and therefore their consumption pattern is low.

Hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significance level with a degree of freedom (R–1) (C–1). The study revealed that Poverty Reduction Programmes has not impacted significantly on poverty reduction or eradication in Imo State. This conclusion was drawn from an empirical analysis using chi-square which led to rejecting the alternative hypothesis that Poverty Reduction Programme has impacted significantly on poverty eradication in Imo State.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Nigeria has one of the greatest development potentials in Africa given the vastness of her resources and above all her rich human resource endowment. But regardless of these potentials Nigeria is still among the poorest countries of the world. The economy is mired by multiple difficulties. On the basis of widespread economic crisis, and the recent global economic meltdown, the country is unable to raise the standard of living of its citizens to an appreciable height. Thus poverty, in both absolute and relative terms, constitutes one of the most serious problems confronting Nigeria. Statistically, between 1960 and 1980, the poverty level covered about 28.0 percent of the population; by 1996 it rose alarmingly to about 66 percent of the population (Aliju, 2001).

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According to the United Nation Development Program Human Development Report (2008-2009) which combined such components as; level of inequality, life expectancy at birth, standard of living and access to knowledge, and education, between 2004 and 2009 poverty in Nigeria has worsened from 0.43 to 0.49. This shows that despite its vast resources, Nigeria ranks among the 25 poorest countries of the world. In fact, poverty has been a serious challenge to governments in Nigeria. Its effect, which includes lack and deprivation in the basic necessities of life, is worrisome. Poverty humiliates and dehumanizes its victim Ukpong (1996). To this end government and people in authority almost always strive to ensure that adequate structural programs are enshrined to see that poverty if not eradicated, is reduced to the barest minimum.

Poverty alleviation strategies ranging from Operation Feed the Nation of 1978, the Green Revolution of 1982, the Directorate of Foods Roads and Rural Infrastructures DFFRI, the National Directorate for Employment NDE, Poverty Alleviation Program PAP, the National Poverty Eradication Program, NAPEP up to the Seven – Point Agenda were all attempts made by various governments in the country in order to curb the menace of poverty. Therefore, given this background analysis, this study critically examines the problems and prospects of achieving a remarkable reduction in Imo State’s poverty profile through policy harmonization of all poverty alleviation programs in Nigeria for effective implementation.

Poverty alleviation has been the cornerstone of development strategies adopted over the years. In the 1950s and 1960s, large investment focused on physical infrastructure as the instrument for fast economic growth and alleviation of poverty. Beginning from the 70s, development specialists realized that physical capital itself was not sufficient and that human capital was equally important. At this time, there was a major shift of investment funds from physical infrastructural projects to those that focused on human development (Duraiappah, 2000). In Nigeria, poverty is believed to assume a worrisome dimension at the end of the civil war in 1970 (Eboreime & Njoku, 2015).

 1.2     Statement of the Problem

Nigeria in general and Imo State to be specific, poverty is a huge challenge. It exists in both relatives and absolute form. The later in terms of lack of access to basic means of livelihood without which life becomes meaningless. (Egwu 2007). There are several factors that hinder empowerment and poverty reduction. They include poverty, low level of education, poor job opportunities, discrimination, socio-cultural barriers such as ethnicity and culture, etc.

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Today, poverty is widely addressed as a global problem. Poverty affects over four billion people. It is important to know that most of the poor people live in the developing worlds of Africa, Asia and Latin America (Gbosi, 2004). On the average, 45-50% of Sub-Saharan Africans live below the poverty line. And in Nigeria about 60.9% of the population was living below the poverty line of one dollar (0.63 pounds) a day in 2010 prices (NBS, 2012). In 1980, the poverty level was only 28.1% but by 1996 it had jumped to 66.6%. Having been mindful of the implications to the economy, the government needs to make concerted efforts in order to reduce poverty in the country. Different poverty eradication programmes and project to cushion the effects of poverty have been initiated over the years. This was receiving with high hopes. The above mentioned problems and many more calls for a thorough investigation in order to empower individuals to reduce poverty which the study is set to achieve.

 1.3     Objective of the Study

The general objective of this study to find out factors that hinder the reduction poverty among citizens in Imo State from 2000-2010. While the specific objectives of the study include:

  1. To determine the degree of government empowerment through poverty reduction programme.
  2. To examine the nature and dimension of poverty in Imo State.
  3. To determine the problems encountered in the course of implementing poverty reduction programmes

1.4     Research Questions

In line with the above, the following issues will be looked into:

  1. To what extent has the populace being empowered through poverty reduction programme in Imo State?
  2. What are the nature and dimension of poverty in Imo State?
  3. What are the challenges associated with programmes implementation in Imo State?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

The following hypothesis were formulated and tested to establish facts towards required information.

H0: Poverty Eradication Programme has not impacted significantly on poverty reduction in Imo State.

H1: Poverty Eradication Programme has impacted significantly on poverty eradication in Imo State.

1.6     Significance of the Study

Poverty has eaten deep into the fabric of our nation (Nigeria). The only way to eradicate or reduce this scourge is to empower both citizens of the state most especially the rural dwellers in order to reduce poverty among them. This research work is therefore significant/useful to the both Federal, State and Local Government Administrators and also future researchers.

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To the government and policy-makers, it identifies and reveals the successes and failures, challenges and prospects of these programs and affords them the opportunity of designing and implementing a holistic approach, procedures and strategies, and better ways of tackling this hydra-headed menace called poverty.

To the students and fellow researchers, it reveals the operations and the impact of poverty reduction programmes on the people. While it serves as an addition to the stock of knowledge, it also serves as a basis for further research.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This project work is limited to the challenges of poverty reduction with particular reference to Imo State. The project shall cover between 1999 till 2009. This will enable the researcher to be focused on the subject matter.

1.8     Definition of Terms

EMPOWERMENT: This is the expansion of assets and capabilities of people’s power to participate in negotiate with influence, control and hold accountable in structure that affects their lives.

POVERTY: Poverty refers to a situation and process of serious deprivation or lack of resources and materials necessary for living within a minimum standard conducts of human dignity and well being

AGENCIES: These are organizations established by governments to promote and assist in the provision and exchange of goods and services to the general public.

SELECTIVE DEPRIVATION: This is an act or a process of favouring other of something considered to be a necessity.

DEMOGRAPHIC POWER: This is the situation whereby leaders (men) try to win support by using argument based on emotion rather than resources.

POLITICS: This is simply a context over the government resources and position.

PERPETUAL SUCCESSION: This is of something or an investment to be in a continual or occurring repeatedly e.g. the Imo State Agency for Poverty Reduction Agency is a continual and everlasting agency set up by law to operate like a private sector organization.


Pages:  60

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo                            

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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