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Problems And Prospects Of Small Scale Fish Farming In Oshimili South Local Government Area Of Delta State

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Abstract

This study was carried out to ascertain the problems and prospects of small scale fish farming in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised of 150 small-scale fish farmers Oshimili South Local Government Area. The sample of the study was sixty (60) small-scale fish farmers drawn through simple random sampling technique to serve as the representatives of the entire population. The instrument used for data collection is a structured questionnaire, which was structured by the researcher.  To ensure the validity of the instrument, copies of the instrument was sent to a lecturer in Vocational Education Department of Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba a lecturer in Educational Measurement and Evaluation for face and content validation. The corrections and suggestions made by the experts reflected on the final copies of the instrument. Based on the analysis, the study found among others that small scale fish farmers are faced with financial problems in terms of lack of access to government loans, difficulty getting loans from commercial banks, high interest on loans and inability to have required collateral for obtaining loans and small scale fish farmers are faced with managerial problems in terms of lack of required skill to effectively run their businesses, lack of financial plans, lack of strategies, and absence of trade union. Based on  the findings, there should be increased awareness on the importance of fish farming by the government to encourage more people to get involved in it, small scale fish farmers should be trained on the use of new technologies for better farming and government should create an avenue that will access to loans easy with affordable interest rate.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

The story of fish farming in Nigeria is essentially the story of catfish culture and the hope of fish supply in Nigeria hang on its development and culture. Recent trends all over the world, point to a decline in landing from capture fisheries, an indicator that fish stocks have approached or even exceeded the point of maximum sustainable yield. Fish farming therefore remains the only viable alternative for increasing fish production in order to meet the protein need of the people. Catfishes of the family Claridae comprise the most commonly cultivated fishes in Nigeria (Justin, 2016). The growth of aquaculture in Nigeria now is largely being boosted by a steady rise in catfish culture. Inadequate availability of seed for stocking and feed used to be major problems. Tremendous progress is now being made. The favoured catfish species in Nigeria aquaculture include:  gariepinus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis, Clarias,  Heterobranchus hybrid (Heteroclarias) and Clarias, nigrodigitatus. Heterobranchus is the more commonly cultured fish in the south-eastern parts of Nigeria. African catfish is popular in the market and has great potentials to boost the rapidly growing Nigerian aquaculture (Robert, 2014).

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The practice of fish farming in urban areas has played a vital role in contributing to food supply, and the livelihood of urban dwellers. Fish is known to be the best source of animal protein, is rich in amino acids, and low in cholesterol (Robert, 2014). Moreover, fish farming is a vital means for the supply of nutrients such as calcium, iron, iodine, and vitamins. In fact, fish products account for 20% of the protein consumed in Africa, 30% in Asia, and 10% in Latin America and the Caribbean. Fish farming is also regarded as an important source of food to more than 400 million Africans, and contributes essential micronutrients, proteins, and minerals to their meals. Fish constitutes 40% of the animal protein consumed in Nigeria (Luke, 2015). The Federal Department of Fisheries (FDF) has noted that Nigeria produced just over 800,000 metric tons of fish. Yet 600,000 metric tons of fish must be imported annually to supply the large demand for protein in this country. These statistics show that fish products in Nigeria have not been sufficient to satisfy domestic demand for animal protein, thus bearing testimony to the fact that fish production has not been given the attention it deserves by the government (Luke, 2015). Fish production serves as a means of generating revenue from production and related processing and marketing activities. By 2002, developing nations earned more foreign exchange from exports of fish products than sugar, rice, and coffee combined (Luke, 2015).

Fish farming is the field of profession which focuses on   the rational rearing of fish within a fairly shallow body of water where all the life processes of the fish can be monitored and controlled. It is an important revenue earning sector especially at such a time when the nation seeks to diversify its productive base from the monolithic nature of total dependence on the oil sector to other sectors like agriculture (Dan, 2014). It also facilitates the nation towards achieving its goals of food security, generate employment, save foreign exchange and generate foreign exchange revenue through the exportation of   fish and fish products.

Ayinla (2016), stipulated that aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world; and that aquaculture production shall likely double within the next fifteen years as a result of market increase in demand of cultured fish and wild fisheries approaching their biological limits.

With a land mass of 923,766 km2, and 1.75 million hectares. The fish farming business is a lucrative means of alternatively meeting the nation’s development for self-sufficiency. Fish farming is a reliable business because of its high   return on investment and low capital intensity, relative to capture fisheries. Currently the federal government intends to actively develop the fish farming sector to cope with the increasing demand for fish and fish products (Peter, 2017).

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However, opportunities for exploitation exist in the fisheries subsector. While it is viewed as a source of livelihood for people in the coastal areas. There the need to sustain wild fish stocks. Hence the need for   long-term investments in fish farm development.

Intervention activities can be in the areas of planning, ecosystem-based resource management, post-harvest sector, human resource development. The bulk of Nigerian fisheries is gotten from the following sources marine capture, inland capture, aquaculture (commercial and subsistence). Which also takes into consideration the landings of Distant-Water Vessels (imports). There has been a conscious effort for fish farm development in Nigeria. This is attributed to increase in output of domestic fish production due to the establishment of fish farming across the country in recent years. However, the domestic fish farming business has not been fully exploited to reduce the dependency on imported fish.

Marketing is a vital part of fish farming business because it is through marketing that the fish gets to the final consumers. Marketing encompasses all the processes involved from the production of a commodity until it gets to the final consumer. Major factors to consider include seasonality, scarcity and means of preservation which are the main problems of fresh fish marketing.

Transportation also plays a vital role as it is observed to be a major factor in fish marketing and distribution in Nigeria. Many fish sellers travelled by road, therefore it is pertinent to decide on proper road network to enhance the effective distribution of the product to the final consumers.

Fish transportation cost should be kept minimal. The farmers may prefer to sell the fish at the farm gate at a selling price that does not compare favorably well with fish sold in the market. It is pertinent that the government should provide new roads and maintain existing ones to enhance effective distribution and marketing of fish and fish product. Fish Farmers also have great opportunities to explore in the international market.  Adedeji and Okocha, (2016) stated that it is vital to disseminate information gotten from research or from local technical Knowledge of farmers.

Statement of the Problem

Fish farming also known as aquaculture is one of the major sources of revenue for the government which also serves as a means of livelihood for many citizens.

Over the years, efforts have been made by the government to ensure that this area is given the needed attention to attract more investors. Despite the effort, the field is being faced with numerous challenges ranging from financial, developmental, transportation, infrastructural problems and many more which has affected the small scale fish farmers thereby demotivating and discouraging others from joining the business.

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Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to ascertain the problems and prospects of small scale fish farming in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. Specifically, the study seeks to ascertain:

  1. The financial problems faced by small scale fish farmers in Oshimili South Local Government Area.
  2. The management problems faced by small scale fish farmers in Oshimili South Local Government Area.
  • Marketing problems faced by small scale fish farmers in Oshimili South Local Government Area.
  1. The prospects of small scale fish farming in Oshimili South Local Government Area

Research Questions

The following questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. What are the financial problems faced by small scale fish farmers in Oshimili South Local Government Area?
  2. What are the management problems faced by small scale fish farmers in Oshimili South Local Government Area?
  • Marketing Problems faced by small scale fish farmers in Oshimili South Local Government Area?
  1. What are the prospects of small scale fish farming in Oshimili South Local Government Area?

Significance of the Study

The study would be of great benefit to the students, government, field of Vocational Education and the researchers as a whole.

The findings of the study would go a long way in helping the students to understand the problems faced by small scale fish farmers in the local government which will enable them to prepare for the challenges ahead.

The findings of the study would help to bring to the notice of the government to the problems faced by small scale fish farmers in the local government which will enable them to look into the sector and tackle such problems for better fish production.

The study would be and addition to the literature in the field of Agricultural Education which will also serve as a reference material for those who may which to carry out further research in the field.

Scope of the Study

The study is delimited to the problems and prospects of small scale fish farming in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. With particular emphasis on the financial problems, development problems, infrastructural problems and the prospects of small scale fish farming in the Local Government Area.

Limitation of the Study

The study sort to find out the problems and prospects of small scale fish farming in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. The researcher had to go into riverine areas to meet with the fishermen to interview them. The research is however subject to further research to determine to what extent fish product can be enhanced through the local fishermen.


Pages:  55

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo                                     

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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