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Nutrition & Dietetics

Prevalence Of Hypertension And Determiniation Of Its Risk Factors Among Traders In Obio-Akpor Local Government Area, Rivers State

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ABSTRACT

This study aimed at investigating the prevalence of hypertension and determining its risk factors among traders in Obio-Akpor L.G.A, Rivers State. It was a cross-sectional survey comprising of three hundred and forty respondents (traders) which were randomly selected for the study. The study was conducted at markets in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area, Rivers State. A structured and validated questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, frequency of food consumption, dietary practices, anthropometry indices and blood pressure readings from respondents. Weights, heights, waist and hip circumference were assessed using Harrison weighing scale, meter rule and non-stretchable tape calibrated in centimeters respectively. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 was used to analyze the data. The results showed that 340 subjects were recruited of which 62.6% were males while 37.4% were females. 63% of the respondents had normal BMI, 23.2% were overweight, 9.7% were obese while 3.6% were underweight. Waist-Hip ratio revealed that fifty percent of the respondents were at low risk, 28.5% were at moderate risk while 20.9% were at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Blood pressure readings showed that 53.2% of the subjects had blood pressure within normal ranges, 35.3% were pre-hypertensive, 10.9% fell under stage 1 hypertension while 0.6% fell under stage 2 hypertension. Data on dietary practices of the subjects revealed that 66% of the respondents skipped meals while 34% did not skip meal. Among the respondents that skipped meals 38.1% skipped breakfast often, 29.7% skipped lunch often while 38.1% skipped supper often. Also forty percent of the subjects skipped meals because of lack of time and busy schedules, 13.5% skipped meals because of finance, 10% skipped meals because of weight management while 13.5% skipped meal because of sickness. Greater percentage (79.7%) of the respondents engage in snacking while 20.3% did not consume snacks. Data from fruits consumption revealed 30.6% of the population consumed fruits daily, 43.8% consumed fruits weekly while 25.6% consumed fruits occasionally. Data from vegetables intake showed that 50.0% of the respondents consumed vegetables daily, 42.1% consumed vegetables weekly while 7.9% consumed vegetables occasionally. 32.4% of the subjects consumed milk and milk products daily, 42.3% consumed milk and milk products weekly while 25.3% consumed occasionally. 57.9% of the populace consumed meat and meat products daily, 33.9% consumed meat and meat products weekly while 8.2% consumed occasionally. Weekly fish consumption data showed that 62.3% of the respondents consumed fish and seafood daily, 30.6% consumed fish and seafood weekly while 7.1% consumed fish and seafood occasionally. Data from fats, oils and sweet consumption revealed that 69.4% of the subjects consumed fats, oils and sweet daily, 25.9% consumed weekly while 4.7% consumed occasionally.It was observed that there was a positive significant correlation between blood pressure and age (Chi-square = 70.810a, p = 0.000). There exist a positive significant correlation between blood pressure and sex (Chi-square = 17.249a, p = 0.008). There was a positive significant correlation between blood pressure and marital status (Chi-square = 20.316a, p = 0.016). There was a positive significant correlation between blood pressure and educational status (Chi-square = 21.028a, p = 0.013). There was a positive significant correlation between blood pressure and weekly alcohol consumption (Chi-square = 19.826a, p = 0.040). There existed a positive significant correlation between blood pressure and body mass index (Chi-square = 50.120a, p = 0.000). There was a positive significant correlation between blood pressure and waist-hip ratio (Chi-square = 20.471a, p =0.002). There was a positive significant correlation between blood pressure and intake of food from milk and milk products food group (Chi-square = 26.160a, p = 0.010).

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

  • Background of Study

Non-communicable diseases have overtaken communicable diseases as the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria (Oladapo et al., 2010). The changing disease pattern has been traditionally attributed to recent advances in medicine resulting in the development of drugs and vaccines for the effective control of communicable diseases. Other factors driving this transition include; changes in diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and inadequate exercise. There is also rural to urban as well as fetal malnutrition which predisposes individuals to development of non-communicable diseases is hypertension.

Hypertension also known as high blood pressure is a diet related disease with high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Identification of its risk factors will inform intervention for its control. Hypertension is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (WHO, 2010). Many people who are hypertensive are unaware of their condition and among them treatment is not frequent and inadequate. Uncontrolled hypertension is associated with serious organ damaging diseases including heart disease, stroke, blindness and renal diseases (Kumar et al., 2007). These serious complications can be prevented by adequate diet, exercise and blood pressure control.

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The market is a meeting place for the distribution, exchange of goods and services between consumers and as such represents the soul of every community in Nigeria. The nature of businesses carried out by traders also involves travelling from one location to another in other to purchase goods for sales or use. The market environment influences both eating habit and lifestyles of the traders. According to Afolabi et al., 2004, they consume diets with mean daily energy initiate for higher than recommended level. They also over eat as a result of stress, sometimes the skip their meals. Also some consume salt-laden fast foods while at work and spend most hours of the day sitting down and are sometimes involved in alcohol consumption later in the day to ease work stress.

Providing information on the prevalence of hypertension of these set of people will contribute to the wealth of the knowledge on the effect of chronic diseases on Nigerians, help to make informed choices on intervention strategies and as well evaluate any on-going attempts to curb the disease.

Traders therefore, represent an important productive sector of the economy. Hence this study is set to determine the prevalence of hypertension and determination of its risk factors among traders in Obio/Akpor local government area, Rivers State of Nigeria.

  • Statement of Problem

The health condition of traders is one of the factors that play a major role in assuring progress in their businesses. A study by Onwubere et al., 2011, a community based study of rural and semi-urban population in Enugu Nigeria put the prevalence of hypertension in the community at 34.8%. Also a similar prevalence of 34.8% was observed by Ogbudemi et al., (2012) among traders in Lagos state, Nigeria. This high prevalence among traders is associated with sedentary lifestyle, dietary habits and nutritional knowledge. This study will therefore, evaluate the prevalence of hypertension and determination of its risk factors among traders in Obio/Akpor local government area of Rivers state, Nigeria.

  • Objectives of the Study
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1.3.1    General Objectives

The general objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and ascertain its risk factors among traders in Obio/Akpor LGA, Rivers state.

1.3.2    Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of this study includes to;

  1. Determine the prevalence of hypertension among traders in Obio/Akpor local government area of Rivers state, Nigeria.
  2. Determine the risk factors of hypertension among traders in Obio/Akpor local government area of Rivers state, Nigeria.
  3. Evaluate the nutritional status and dietary practices of traders in Obio-Akpor local government area of Rivers state, Nigeria.
    • Significance of the Study

Data obtained from this research work will be beneficial in the following ways;

  1. It will provide information on the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among traders in Obio/Akpor LGA, Rivers state.
  2. It will serve as a guide to nutritionists in conducting nutrition education programs.
  3. It will also serve as a guide in making policy towards improving the nutritional health of traders and also help curb the morbidity and mortality rates among traders.
  4. To traders who need to be informed about the health and nutrition risks associated with their occupation and lifestyle.
  5. It will also serve as a base for further research on the prevalence of hypertension and nutritional status of traders in a broader setting.

    Pages:  65

    Category: Project

    Format:  Word & PDF         

    Chapters: 1-5                                 

    Source: Imsuinfo                            

    Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

    Project


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