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Motivation And Productivity Of Junior Staff Of Ngor-Okpala Local Government Council (2015 – 2020)

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ABSTRACT

This study focuses on the motivation and performance of junior staff of Ngor-Okpala local government. The study was carried out to determine if the motivation of junior staff of the local government by way of increased and prompt payment of salaries can lead to higher performance and output in the local government. The objectives of the study included: to explain how poor/inadequate salary contributes to low productivity/performance in Ngor-Okpala local government council, to determine if non participation of junior workers in decision making affect the relationship between the workers and the management in Ngor-Okpala local government council and to ascertain if the absence of good working environment reduces the workers productivity/performance in Ngor-Okpala local government council. The Hierarchy of Needs theory was used to analyze the work while the method of data collection consisted of a combination of both primary and secondary data. The research findings revealed that adequate salary, workers participation in decision making, and good working environments contribute immensely to organizational productivity and performance. Ngor-Okpala needs to increase the workers’ enjoyment of these variables to be able to actualize maximum productivity and performance of its junior staff.  

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The motivation of workers is just one variable affecting work performance, a number of organizational factors have to be considered as well. These include work flows, supply of material, the quality of work designed, work programming, the availability of appropriate equipment and above all, the quality of management. Motivation is a basic psychological process. Motivation is, therefore, an important variable for organization effectiveness and productivity.

The comprehensive understanding of motivation lies in the need-drive-incentive sequence, or cycle. The basic process involves need, which sets drives in motion to accomplish incentives (anything which alleviates a need and reduce a drive). The drive or motive may be classified into primary, general and secondary categories. The primary motives are unlearned and psychologically based, common primary motives are hunger, thirsty, sleep, avoidance of pain, sex and material concern. The general or stimulus motive are also unlearned but are not psychologically based and they are curiosity, manipulation, activity, are all examples of general motives. Secondary motives are learned and are most relevant to the study of organization behavior. The needs for power, achievement, affiliation, security and status are major motivating forces in the behavior of organizational participants.

Productivity is the goal of every organization, any organization that cannot operate to a degree of significant productivity in an important entity, such organization would produce a wholesome disappointment to its owners, and a wide spread dissatisfaction and disaffection among its entire worker. A productive organization enriches the owners, it serves as a source of inspiration and motivation to the workers as they would be very proud of their organization and appreciate the fruits of their labor.

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Motivation is the act of stimulating an organism to take a desire coursed of action. The theory of motivation is build on the “law of effect” of the psychology of learning which states, according to Beach (1975: 456), that “behavior that is perceived to be rewarding will tend to be repeated whereas the behavior that goes unrewarded or punished that will tend to be extinguished. In these perspectives, Kelly (1974:247) defines motivation as “behavior instigated by need and directed towards the goals that can satisfy this needs” thus, motivation is an instrument for securing good job performance. Motivation, therefore, is anything that stimulates people to act in a better way in other to achieve any stated objectives. According to Jones and George (2003:405) motivation may be defined as “psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effect, and a person’s level of persistence in the face of obstacle”. According to Hicks (1972:280) motivation can either be positive or negative. Positives motivation, in his view, is sometimes called “anxiety reducing motives” or “they cannot approach which offers something valuable to the workers” (pay, praises etc.). For acceptable performance on the other hand, negative motivation which is often called “the stick approach” uses of threatens or punishment of performance is unacceptable. Positive motivation serves as a powerful instrument or tool for raising the moral of workers to attain greater heights in their organizational goals.

Productivity can be seen as the capacity or a situation where an individual or organization produces maximum results with available human financial and material resources to achieve set objective or goals. In this, efficiency and effectiveness are indices of public organization. For a proper and effective motivation of public servants, public managers should be fully aware of the theories and techniques of motivation and skillfully apply them in the motivation of workers in other to inspire them toward achieving organizational goals. Any organization that cannot operate a degree of significant productivity is an impotent entity or organization.

1.2    STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

The issue of motivation has posed different challenges to workers performance and productivity. This is because many organizations have not been able to employ the most suitable techniques that motivate workers to put in their best in achieving organizational goals and objectives. Most organizations are faced with the issue of lack of adequate salaries, lack of workers participation in decision making, lack of good working environment, irregular promotion of workers etc.

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Lack of adequate salary kills the spirit of productivity. This is because a worker is more likely to perform to his potential if he’s happy with the salary he is earning. A person earning a high salary feels motivated to do a good job, because he wants to please his employer to retain his position. His salary brings him a feeling of security, allows him to feel accomplished and gives him a high status ranking that he enjoys. A person is much more willing to put in extra hours at the office if he feels his financial rewards are a fair trade-off.

Lack of workers participation in decision making is another challenging issue which affects workers productivity and performance in an organization. Most organizations have failed in the area of workers participation in the decision making. Workers tend to put in their best when they are inclusive in decision making. Research has shown that participation in decision-making can increase workers performance, raises productivity, production and efficiency of the employee of any organization. In addition, participation in the decision-making process gives each employee the opportunity to voice their opinions, and to share their knowledge with others. While this improves the relationship between manager and employee, it also encourages a strong sense of teamwork among workers.

Another challenging issue that affects organizational productivity is lack of good working environment. Studies have shown that noise, light, temperature, furniture, location and layout are important factors that influence employee productivity. Lighting is the primary factor that affects an employee’s productivity, temperature has a greater effect on female employees than on male employees, male employees are highly affected by office furniture, both natural and artificial light are necessary to maximize employee productivity, spatial arrangement of office furniture is important to productivity. Poor working environment creates dissatisfaction and working inconveniences among workers which invariably affects productivity and performance.

Irregular promotion is another challenging issue that affects workers productivity. When promotion is not regular, the workers are not motivated to put in their best. Irregular promotion kills the motivating spirit of workers which invariably, affects the workers productivity and performance.

Therefore, the problem focus of this work is to make a general assessment of the issue of Motivation in Ngor-Okpala local government and how it posed as a challenge to the its productivity. It is intended to explain and provide an insight on the strategies to be taken in order to ensure suitable and adequate productivity in the local government, with some practical solutions and recommendations.

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1.3      OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This research study aims at finding out the following:

  • To explain how poor/inadequate salary contributes to low productivity in Ngor-Okpala local government council.
  • To determine if non participation of junior workers in decision making affect the relationship between the workers and the management in Ngor-Okpala local government council.
  • To ascertain if the absence of good working environment reduce the workers productivity in Ngor-Okpala local government council.

1.4      RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. In what ways do poor/inadequate salaries contribute to low productivity in Ngor-Okpala local government council?
  2. How does non-participation of junior workers in decision making affect the relationship between the workers and the management in Ngor-Okpala local government council?
  3. In what ways do poor work environment affect the workers productivity in Ngor-Okpala local government council?

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

Misplacement of emphasis is always an impediment towards the successful achievement of any particular good. So this study will help in ratifying the managerial misplacement of emphasis on monetary incentives and other non monetary incentives such as participation in decision making among the workers, good working environment and regular promotion as the sole motivator of workers towards achieving increased productivity.

The study will educate or enlighten those on the management strata that when they begin to feel with their workers, have a humanistic focus on their best towards achieving increased productivity for their organization. The study is equally a criticism of the tenets of the scientific management school of thought which believed that given adequate monetary incentives, participation in decision making among the workers, good working environment and regular promotion to workers will help towards increased production.

This study has primary significance to the management world especially practitioners and aspiring ones.

1.6    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

This is an idea or preposition not derive from experience but form and used to explain certain facts or to provide the foundation or primary assumption of an argument. This study is aimed at examining motivation and productivity of junior workers in Ngor-Okpala local government council. Therefore, the following assumptions are made:

  1. Poor or inadequate salary is the cause of low productivity in Ngor-Okpala local government council.
  2. lack of good working environment affect the productivity of junior workers in Ngor-Okpala local government council
  3. Non-participation of junior workers in the decision making of the local government creates friction between the workers and management and thereby affects their productivity.

    Pages:  59

    Category: Project

    Format:  Word & PDF         

    Chapters: 1-5                                 

    Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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