This study examined the influence of instructional materials on adult learners’ academic performance in literacy centres in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of this study consisted of 79 adult learners and 12 facilitators in Uzoigwe Model Adult Education Centre, Asaba, Delta State which was the only functional adult literary centre as at the conduct of this study. The sample of the study comprised 79 adult learners and 12 facilitators that made up the population of the study. Thus, purposive sampling technique was adopted. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire and validated by two lecturers in Adult and Non-Formal Education Department, School of Early Childhood Care, Primary, Adult and Non-Formal Education and the Department of Educational Psychology, Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba. Data collected were analyzed using Mean and Standard Deviation statistics. Based on the analysis, it was found among others that facilitators use print instructional materials for effective teaching process which influence adult learner’s academic performance positively; adult learners agreed that facilitators use audio instructional materials for effective teaching which influence adult learners’ performance while the facilitators disagreed and maintained that they use visual instructional materials for effective teaching which influence adult learners’ performance positively .On the basis of the findings, it was recommended among others that facilitators should use of instructional materials in teaching adult learners compulsory for improved academic performance.
Background to the Study
Over the years, the poor performance of adult learners in public examinations has been blamed on the wrong choice of teaching methods by facilitators. Teaching and learning activities have a lot to do with other variables, such as instructional materials, facilitator’s qualification, literacy centres environment variables, adult learners’ factors and so on. The importance of instructional materials in any teaching/learning process cannot be over emphasized. This is for the fact that such materials enhance, facilitate and make teaching/learning easy, lively and concrete. Instructional materials are the devices developed or acquired to assist facilitators in transmitting an organized knowledge, skills and attitudes to the adult learners within an instructional situation (Nwachukwu, 2016).
To be precise, instructional materials are educational resources used for illustrating the content of instruction, thereby making learning more concrete and less abstract. The sequence in which adult learners encounter materials has direct effect on the achievement of the task. In providing closer experience to real situation, instructional material enhances acquisition and retention of factual information. Instructional materials not only provide the necessary concrete experience but also help learners to integrate their prior experiences. Instructional materials can be classified into print, audio, visuals, audio-visuals and electronic interactive.
Print instructional materials are in form of hard copy e.g textbooks, handout, pamphlets, study guides manual etc. that facilitators use in teaching adult learners. Audio instructional materials deals with only voice and it can be a recorded lesson note by the facilitator which is in the form of cassettes, microphone, speakers, podcast etc. Visual instructional materials deals with what the adult learners can see with their eyes which include graphics, photographs, concept maps, Powerpoint presentations, films, computer and television images, among others. Audio-visual means hearing and visualizing (seeing). It is seen as an instructional aids such as map, chart, models, projector, television etc. used in the classroom to aid learning and thereby making it easier and interesting for learners to understand. Electronic interactive materials are interactive resources designed to teach a specific learning outcome. They may comprise of a single or multiple pages that can contain any combination of text, images, audio, video – including screencasts, animations, self test questions and other interactive activities.
Adult learners are mature persons who are older but involved in forms of learning (Harper, 2018). Adult learners fall in a specific criterion of being experienced. Many of the adult learners go back to school to finish a degree, or earn a new one. The adults are the individuals, who are above 18 years of age. However, the age of the adult learners is not taken into consideration rather the social roles that define them. There are number of meanings that define adult learners. Some of the definitions of adult learners put emphasis upon the age, whereas, other focus upon breaks in schooling or responsibilities and functions that adults are required to carry out in their lives (Myers, Conte, & Rubenson, 2014).
Academic performance, according to Jam (2014) opined that academic performance is the ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate your knowledge verbally or on paper. In other words, academic performance refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. Academic performance generally refers to how well a student is accomplishing his/her tasks or studies. Therefore, the influence of instructional materials on adult learners’ academic performance cannot be over emphasized because instructional materials are used to assist facilitators to make lessons explicit to adult learners. The material used by most facilitators in teaching and learning process helps both the facilitator and adult learners to easily understand instructional contents taught. Instructional materials are used to assist facilitators to make their lessons explicit to adult learners. They are also used to transmit information ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola, 2015).
Despite benefits of instructional materials to effective teaching/learning process and to adult learners’ academic performance, most facilitator hardly make use of instructional materials in teaching learning process. It is in the light of the foregoing that the researcher sought to investigate the influence of instructional materials on academic performance of adult learners in literacy centres in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State.
Statement of the Problem
Most facilitators are not well grounded in the selection and use of a viable instructional materials and as such teaching and learning in adult literacy centres has not been optimal. Despite the efforts being made by government, literacy centres’ owners to improve learning process, it appears that much is still left to be done (Ankomah & Kwarteng, 2016). Many teaching methods and approaches have been introduced but could not improve the achievement of adult learners in literacy centres. Facilitators teach the subject matter in abstraction thereby making it comprehensive and difficult task for learners and this has militated against the maximization of academic performance of adult learners. Also, facilitators seems not conversant with the current trend in education in relation to the teaching and learning of adult learners (Okolo, 2017). In developed nations, adult learners are taught using practical processes involving chart display and the use of computer and its programmes such as Microsoft Excel. This seems not obtainable in Nigeria as facilitators only make the learners memorize what is taught without really understanding its relevance to real life situation. It is in the light of the above that prompt the researcher to examine the influence of instructional materials on the academic performance of adult learners in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to determine the influence of instructional materials on the academic performance of adult learners in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State.
Specifically, the study sought to:
- Find out how facilitators’ use of print instructional materials influence adult learners’ academic performance.
- Find out how facilitators’ use of audio instructional materials influence adult learners’ academic performance.
- Find out how facilitators’ use of visual instructional materials influence adult learners’ academic performance.
- Find out how facilitators’ use of audio-visual instructional materials influence adult learners’ academic performance.
- Find out how facilitators’ use of electronic interactive instructional materials influence adult learners’ academic performance.
The following research questions guided the conduct of the study.
- How does the use of print instructional materials influence adult learners’ academic performance?
- How does the use of audio instructional materials influence adult learners’ academic performance?
- How does the use of visual instructional materials influence adult learners’ academic performance?
- How does the use of audio-visual instructional materials influence adult learners’ academic performance?
- How does the use of electronic interactive instructional materials influence adult learners academic performance?
Significance of the Study
The study could be of immense benefit to adult learners, facilitators, government, society, curriculum planners and researchers.
The study could be of immense benefit to the adult learners because the effective use of instructional materials would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance academically.
The study could also be of immense benefit to the facilitators because it will help them understand how important instructional materials are required in the classroom by making teaching and learning process easier.
The study could also be significant to the educational system and society at large. This is because when facilitators solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the students learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively.
Finally, the study could be of immense benefit to the curriculum planner because it will help them understand the influence of instruction materials on academic performance of adult learners and with that there will see how they can provide those instructional materials needed while planning for the curriculum of adult learner.
Scope of the Study
This study focused on determination of instructional materials on academic performance of adult learners in literacy centres in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. The study is delimited to the investigation of print, audio, visual, audio-visual and electronic interactive instructional materials and academic performance as variable of interest in this study.
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