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Hospitality & Tourism Management

Improving Tourism Competitiveness In Nigeria

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ABSTRACT

 The study examined the role of hospitality industries in improving tourism competitiveness in Nigeria across Africa. Through this research, a categorization and analysis of resources and actions taken by each Mexican state that contribute towards tourism competitiveness is developed. Such competitiveness is evaluated through one hundred and twelve variables, which are grouped in ten categories defined as dimensions. An overall competitiveness index is developed for each state, as well as complementary indexes for each state under the ten dimensions considered. The results of the research are satisfactory, since governmental authorities reported improvements on the number of tourists and the average expenditure. Such results were achieved by developing new initiatives and projects defined by identifying the strengths and opportunity areas in each state regarding tourism competitiveness, which are outlined through this research.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Tourism is one of the largest generators of wealth and employment in the world (Enright & Newton, 2004). The tourism industry constitutes 11% of global Gross Domestic Product, supports two hundred million jobs worldwide and 8% of total employment. In the last three years, some 8.5 million jobs have been created as a result of growth in tourism. Even more, tourism is expected to continue to grow more rapidly than the world‟s economic output (Taleghani, 2010), because of factors such as population growth, rising incomes and employment, shorter working weeks in many parts of the world, and the increasing integration of the world’s economies and societies. Because of these reasons, a tremendous growth of tourism as a field of study, coupled with increasing demand for tourism education, has led to a heightened focus on research and publications related to this economic sector (Barros, 2005; Jogaratnam, Chon, McCleary, Mena & Yoo, 2005; Reid & Bojanic, 2005). Based on these facts and analyses, tourism can be positioned as a mechanism for promoting economic growth and development (Matarrita-Cascante, 2010; Meyer, 2002).

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As an economic growth strategy, tourism is sought for generation of foreign exchange, increased employment, attraction of foreign capital, and promotion of economic independence (Ren, et al., 2010). In the context of developing countries, the most important economic feature of activities related to the tourism sector is that they contribute to three high-priority goals: the generation of income, employment, and foreign-exchange earnings (Taleghani, 2010).

The competitiveness of industry and firms has been one of the most important themes of research in the fields of economics and business studies. Although the concept of competitiveness of nations was initially proposed by economists (e.g., Porter, 1990), the term has also gained importance as a subject of study among management scholars during the last decade. Most empirical studies on competitiveness at the industry level have been related to the manufacturing and related sectors, and only recently have some researchers started to examine the international competitiveness of the service sector with a particular focus on tourism destinations and the hotel industry that deserves a systematic and critical review. As the tourism and hotel industry continue to prosper in the global economy, competition—whether it be international or domestic among members of the industries— becomes fiercer. Possessing competitive advantages could be key to success for those members. In this study, the researcher aims to synthesize the published studies in tourism destination and hotel competitiveness and provide a holistic picture of what has been examined previously with a view to facilitating further research in these areas.

In the particular case of Nigeria, tourism is one of the economy sectors with the largest capacity to generate benefits and positive effects on the social, economic and environmental spheres (INEGI, 2010). As stated by the World Travel and Tourism Council (2010), the contribution of the travel and tourism industry to Nigeria‟s Gross Domestic Product is expected to rise from 12.7% (US$121.5bn or MXN$1,601.4bn) in 2010, to 14.2% (US$243.2bn or MXN$3,649.0bn) by 2020. Even more, the number of jobs is expected to rise from 5,881,000 in 2010 (13.7% of total employment or one in every 7.3 jobs) to 7,105,000 jobs (14.7% of total employment or one in every 6.8 jobs) by 2020. Because of the reasons mentioned above, the development of new initiatives and projects to promote tourism competitiveness among the different states of Nigeria has been defined as a priority topic at the nationwide level (Carral, 2007; Ibáñez & García, 2009; Propin & Sánchez, 2010; Viktorovna, 2010). Through this research, an initiative to promote tourism competitiveness among the states of Nigeria is developed. Such initiative is achieved through a categorization and analysis of resources and actions taken by each Nigerian state that contribute towards tourism competitiveness.

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1.2     Statement of Problem

Competitiveness remains a difficult concept and is still not precisely defined in various contexts as is shown by the definitions given above. Nevertheless, competitiveness is obviously seen as involving elements of productivity, efficiency, and profitability as a means of achieving rising standards of living and increasing social welfare (Huggins, 2000). However, an important point to make is that not all of the firms/ industries in the nation contribute to competitiveness. If they did, it is likely that it was dependent on the way profits influence firm strategy and managerial behavior (Blaine, 1993). Krugman (1994) further cautioned that national competitiveness is a meaningless concept and the obsession with the concept is both wrong and dangerous. He rather treated national living standards as overwhelmingly determined by domestic factors rather than by competitive rivalry between nations of world markets.

Despite its complexity, the issue of competitiveness continues to attract much attention from policymakers worldwide who attempt to develop the best indicators for countries to benchmark their performances. In recent years, the concern with competitiveness has also drawn the attention of researchers in the fields of destination tourism and the hotel industry as evidenced by the growing number of research studies compared to that in other areas of the tourism industry.

1.3     Objective of the Study

The general objective of this study is aimed at examining the effect of improving tourism competitiveness in hospitality industries in Nigeria.

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The specific objective includes

  1. To identify the priorities required to consolidate tourism for economic and social development
  2. To identify strengths, opportunity areas and priority projects to be developed in each of the thirty-six states in Nigeria.
  3. To examine different tourism infrastructures relevant for tourist activities and competitive index.

1.4     Research Questions

  1. What are priorities required to consolidate tourism for economic and social development in Nigeria?
  2. What are the strengths, opportunity areas and priority projects to be developed in each of the thirty-six states in Nigeria?.
  3. What are the different tourism infrastructures relevant for tourist activities and competitive index.

1.5     Research Hypothesis

The researcher formed some of the hypothesis which will be tested to support this study. The hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significance using the chi-square method and percentage analysis.

The research hypothesis are as follows.

H1: There is a significant difference between relevant tourism infrastructures and tourism competitive index for economic growth.

H0: There is no significant difference between relevant tourism infrastructures and tourism competitive index for economic growth.

 1.6     Significance of the Study

It is believed that the findings of this research work should provide detailed information on the how to manage tourist centers for a sustainable development and long term survival. It is also expected that the study will benefit the hospitality industries and management.

Through this research, an initiative to promote tourism competitiveness among the states of Nigeria is developed. Such initiative is achieved through a categorization and analysis of resources and actions taken by each Nigerian state that contribute towards tourism competitiveness.

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other work or study.


Pages:  30

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo                                     

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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