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Hospitality & Tourism Management

House Keeping Practice And Customer Satisfaction In Owerri




The housekeeping department is the backbone of a hotel. It not only looks after the cleanliness of the whole hotel but largely contributes towards many other activities in a hotel as well. Keeping an inventory and upkeep of all the accommodation and public areas is a challenge in itself which makes it as one of the crucial departments of a hotel. The guest experience in the hotel is highly modified by the effort being put in by the housekeeping department. This study analyzed the impact of housekeeping services and practices on customer satisfaction regarding to guest revisit intention, guest loyalty, and good reputation of the hotel. The population chosen for this study was hotels situated in Owerri, Imo State which includes five, four and three star hotels within the city. A total of two hundred and five (205) filled questionnaire from members of staff of the hotels basically in the housekeeping department were collected. The constructs used were: cleanliness of the rooms, willingness of the staff to help customers and provide prompt service (responsiveness), guest loyalty, guest revisit intention and good reputation of the hotel.  All these were measured and well analyzed and the results showed that cleanliness and responsiveness of the housekeeping staff have a significant positive relationship with guest satisfaction and guest satisfaction has a great positive relationship with good reputation of the hotel.



1.1     Background of the Study

Customer satisfaction is a business philosophy which tends to the creation of value for customers, anticipating and managing their expectations, and demonstrating ability and responsibility to satisfy their needs. Qualities of service and customer satisfaction are critical factors for success of any business (Gronoos, 1990; Parasuraman1988). As Valdani (2009) points out: enterprises exist because they have a customer to serve. The key to achieve sustainable advantage lies in delivering high quality service that result in satisfied customers (Shemwell, 1998). Service quality and customer satisfaction are key factors in the battle to obtain competitive advantage and customer retention. Customer satisfaction is the outcome of customer’s perception of the value received in a transaction or relationship, where value equals perceived service quality, compared to the value expected from transactions or relationships with competing vendors (Blanchard & Galloway, 1994; Heskett 1990; Zeithaml 1990). In order to achieve customer satisfaction, it is important to recognize and to anticipate customers’ needs and to be able to satisfy them. Enterprises which are able to rapidly understand and satisfy customers’ needs, make greater profits than those which fail to understand and satisfy them (Barsky& Nash, 2003). Since the cost of attracting new customers is higher than the cost of retaining the existing ones, in order to be successful managers must concentrate on retaining existing customers implementing effective policies of customer satisfaction and loyalty. This is especially true in the hotel industry. Nowadays one of the biggest challenges for managers in the hotel industry is to provide and sustain customer satisfaction. Customer requirements for quality products and service in the tourism industry have become increasingly evident to professionals (Lam & Zhang, 1999; Yen & Su, 2004). Guest relationships are a strategic asset of the organization (Gruen et al., 2000) and customer satisfaction is the starting point to define business objectives. In this context, positive relationships can create customer’s higher commitment and increase their return rate. Long-term and reciprocally advantageous relationships between customers and the hotel is becoming progressively important because of the highly positive correlation between guests’ overall satisfaction levels and the probability of their return to the same hotel (Choi & Chu, 2001). Hotels are increasing their investments to improve service quality and the perceived value for guests so as to achieve better customer satisfaction and loyalty, thus resulting in better relationships with each customer (Jones, 2007). Relationship quality has a remarkable positive effect on hotel guests’ behavior: it creates positive word of mouth (WOM) and increments repeated guest rates (Kim, 2001).

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After a review of the main literature on customer satisfaction and retention in the hotel industry, This study therefore seeks to examine the correlation between (Housekeeping practice) and (customer satisfaction) among hotels in Imo state whether there is a positive correlation between the customer oriented business philosophy, adopted by the management of these Hotels, and the achievements obtained in terms of customer satisfaction.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The hospitality industry as far as customer satisfaction is concern was is on the down-turn. It was discovered that there is an absence of a satisfaction among customers and the lack of adequate visitor’s ready facilities.

The hospitality industries have tried to look into customer satisfaction as the core of their duty but it is obvious that it have not been achieved till today. Hotels have not achieved much on its housekeeping department. Custom satisfaction is one area in hospitality that cannot be taken likely; for this reason lack of good housekeeping practice will be a huge disadvantage to the industry. For customer satisfaction to be accomplished to its fullest, then housekeeping department should be of necessity to Hotels. This will make hospitality easier and more productive.

This has been a major concern and is still a concern for hotel customers, academics and most Nigerians. Hence, this study therefore aims at ascertaining the viability of good housekeeping practice as a yardstick for customer satisfaction. . Therefore, the researcher has taken to examining the link good housekeeping practicing and its effect on customer satisfaction inOwerri Imo State.

1.3     Conceptual Model of the House Keeping Practice and Customer Satisfaction

The significant variables of this study are Housekeeping practice (independent variable) and Customer satisfaction (dependent variables). Housekeeping practice is the predictor variable; it has cleanliness and staff responsiveness as its dimensions. Similarly, Customer satisfaction is the criterion variables which have revisit intention of customer and guest loyalty as its measures. This study focus on the function of Hotels in Imo State.

Fig. 1.1        Conceptual model of housekeeping practice and customer satisfaction









Fig1: Conceptual Model of the study variables

SOURCE: CONCEPTUALIZED BY THE RESEARCHER (2021). Adopted from  Valdani (2009), Choi and Chu (2001).


1.4     Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to empirically examine the relationship between housekeeping practice and customer satisfaction of hotels in Owerri, Imo State.

The specific objectives are to;

  1. Determine the relationship between proper cleanliness of the rooms and revisit intentions.
  2. Examine the relationship between proper cleanliness of the rooms and guest loyalty.
  3. Examine how cleanliness of the rooms would foster a good reputation of the hotel.
  4. Determine the relationship between good responsiveness of the housekeeping staff and customer revisit intention.
  5. Examine the relationship between staff responsiveness and guest loyalty.
  6. Examine how staff responsiveness can promote good reputation of the hotel.


1.5     Research Questions

The research questions are to:

  1. What extent does cleanliness of the rooms relate to guest revisit intention?
  2. What extent does proper cleanliness of the rooms relate to quest loyalty?
  3. What extent does cleanliness of the rooms foster a good reputation of the hotel?
  4. What extent does staff responsiveness relates to customer revisit intention?
  5. What extent does staff responsiveness responds to guest loyalty?
  6. What extent does staff responsiveness promotes good reputation of the hotel?

1.6     Research Hypotheses

  1. There is a significant relationship between proper cleanliness of the rooms and guest revisit intention
  2. There is a significant relationship between proper cleanliness of the rooms and guest loyalty
  3. There is a significant relationship between cleanliness of the rooms and good reputation of the hotel
  4. There is a remarkable relationship between staff responsiveness and guest revisit intention.
  5. There is a notable relationship between staff responsiveness and guest loyalty.
  6. There is a remarkable relationship between staff responsiveness and good reputation of the hotel.

1.7     Significance of the Study

The findings of the study are expected to be beneficial to different stakeholders in several ways. Ministry: It could prompt the Ministry of Tourism and Culture in Nigeria to enforce good housekeeping practice standards in all hotels in the country.

Policy Makers: formulation of policies and programs which could educate stakeholders on their right and responsibilities to making sure that their customers get good value for their money.

Top Managements: The findings could offer insights to top management of budget hotels on the high risk factors associated with poor housekeeping practice, thus, acting as a vehicle for coming up with ways of improving them.

1.8     Scope of the Study

When we talk of scope of study we are actually looking at the totality of the domain which the researcher wants to cover.

Geographical Scope: A study of such nature and significance should have covered all hotels in Owerri. Irrespective of the City, the category or the rating. Unfortunately, logistical support at the disposal of the researcher made it impossible and as a result the study was delimited by its geographical scope. The study was carried out around Owerri and its environs.

Content Scope: In terms of content and coverage, the study was limited to housekeeping practice which includes: cleanliness of the rooms and staff responsiveness as well as Customer satisfaction. This is as a result that the study gaps were found on the said two areas of the study. Again though existing literature revealed that researchers have identified several determinants of customer satisfaction, this study was limited to housekeeping practice as a variable, and how it can be managed to ensure good customer satisfaction. These variables were considered because they were thought to be more responsive to policy and administrative intervention. The inclusion criteria for selecting the study units were based on Hotel patronizes who should have been visiting Hotels for at least six months and should not be less than 18 years of age. These selection criteria were to exclude those who have not visited a Hotel and might have not have the full knowledge or information on the issues to be addressed by the study or those who are considered minors.

Unit for Analysis: This study will be carried out at the organizational level. The questionnaires will be distributed to staff members of some of the hotels around Owerri axes.

1.9      Limitation of the Study          

Limitation of the study focuses at the setbacks the researcher observed during his study. That nevertheless, limitation will most assuredly motivate potential researchers and give them a cause to carry out further research on their own.

The construct of this study is limited to Owerri, Imo state. The reason is because of logistical and financial constraints. This study was also limited due to the available sample size and determination of this study cannot be used to carry out a similar research in another country of the world. The findings may not translate to performance in other state.

Lastly this research experience limitation due to insufficient data on tourism activities in Nigeria.

1.10   Operational Definition of Terms      

In order to clearly understand the problem the following terms are operationally defined. Ability: Physical or mental power to perform.

Hospitality Industry: The entire establishment in the practicing of entertainment of visitors with kindness.

Housekeeper: Employee in the hospitality industry responsible for keeping the rooms and hotel clean.

Houseman: Employee who works for Housekeeping; responsible for heavy cleaning jobs, lifting, and moving (Tucker and Schneider, 1982).

Incentive: Something inciting one to action or effort. Intrinsic: Inherent, part of the nature of a person related to their job satisfaction.

Productivity: Output of goods or services per hour of labor (Kast and Rosenzweig, 1985). Rein forcer: Specifications of the reinforcement values of classes of stimulus conditions (Dawis, England and Lofquist, 1964).

Skill: The techniques, the approaches and the styles of translating knowledge into actions or practice.

Training: The process of acquiring and developing skills, knowledge and attitudes through instructional activities.

Work Adjustment: The process by which the individual (with his unique set of abilities and needs) acts, reacts and comes to term with his work environment (Dawis, England and Lofquist, 1964).

Canned Response: reusable replies to common questions, available for all agents to use—they can usually be inserted with a shortcut or click for saving time.

Customer Effort: the amount of work your customer has to do themselves to resolve an issue. Generally best kept at a low as possible level.

Customer Experience: the customer’s opinion of their experience and relationship with your company through various points of their lifecycle.

Customer Satisfaction (CSAT): a metric that measures your customers’ general happiness and loyalty with regards to your company.

Customer Service: the assistance, advice and information provided by a company to people, businesses etc. that use their product or service.

Retention: the ability of a company or business to retain its customers over a specified period of time.

Survey: a questionnaire sent to the customer generally after resolving the issue to find out how happy they were with the support they received.

1.11   Organization of the Study

Chapter one contains the introductory part of the study which includes: Background of the study, Statement of the problem, Conceptual framework, Purpose of the study, Research questions, Significance of the study, Scope of the study, Limitation of the study, Operation definition of terms.

Chapter two contains Introduction, Concept of independent variable of the study, the dimensions of Independent variables of the study, Concept of dependent variable of the study, the measures dependent variables of the study, the relationship between the Independent and Dependent variables.

Chapter three contains research design, population of the study, Sampling procedure/sample size determination, data collection methods, Instruments of design, validity of instrument, Reliability of instrument, Operational measures of variables, Data analysis technique, Summary.

Chapter four contains Introduction, Questionnaire administration and response rate, Univariate analysis, bivariate analysis, Discussion of findings.

Chapter five contains Introduction, Summary of findings, Conclusion, Recommendations, and Suggestions for further research.

Pages:  50

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF         

Chapters: 1-5                                                      

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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