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Animal & Environmental Biology

Growth Performance Of Clarias Gariepinus Fed With Coppens At A Frequency Of Once And Twice Daily



Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, mulluscs, crustacean and aquatic plant is necessary to meet the protein need of Nigerians. Overtime, there has been increase in fish production in Nigeria. Despite this increase in fish production, the desired result has not been attained. Quantitatively, details of fish production as at 2005 stood at 490,600 tons (FAO, 2003) from the artisan fishery, 56,300 tons from industry fishery through the use of trawlers, while fish importation stood at 61,150 tons.

In meeting up with the growing need for fish production, aquaculture practice has been identified as a possible alternative, the reasons being that the activities of artisans and industrial fishery in our natural waters have led to over exploitation and degradation due to human activities in our coastal water. To fully bring aquaculture to its desired level, four production challenges have been identified.

These are the challenges of feeding the fish stock in the pond, management of pond water supply, fish seeds provision and pond construction/establishment. The first two challenges: fish feeding and water quality management affect each other. The level of feeding of the stocks affects the water quality and the level of water quality affect the feeding performance of fish in the pond (George, 2001).

Fish like other animals need food to be able to carry out their metabolic activities. In aquaculture, fish feeding is either supplemental or complete (total supply). Supplemental feeding is when feeds are given to the animal at a minimal level to add to the natural food available for the fish in the pond water. These natural foods are in the form of phytoplankton and zooplanktons.

The complete feeding is when the source of food fed to the fish is solely supplied by the farmer. In whichever case, the type of feeding practiced depends on the nature of the pond and the type of production the farmer is involved with (Michael, 1987; Michael et al., 2005). The most popular cultured fish in Nigeria is the Catfish. It is naturally carnivorous, a bottom pond dweller, nocturnally very active and belongs to the family of Claridae (Willian, 1967; Idoho-Umeh, 2003). However, with the fish domestication, its modes of feeding and activities have been destabilized and modified. To this end, the feeding regime has become diverse but the thumb rule of feeding stock at optimum level should be very economical so as to have savings in feed cost and the overall economic justification.

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Webster et al., (1992) reported that catfish can be fed once or twice daily and rainbow trout at three times a day. In whichever case, the type of feeding practiced depends on the nature of the pond and the type of production; climatic condition and economic status of the farmer dictate the feeding requirement. Various studies have been done in fish feeding (Collins and Delmendo, 1979; Sena and Brain, 1992) but much is still to be done in the area of the best time of the day and frequency to feed catfish so as to have good growth performance that will justify the high cost of feeding provided by the farmer.

Determining the best frequency of feeding the catfish is therefore expected to help to maximize performance, discourage waste, and ensure the success of the enterprise. This will help to discourage the deterioration of water quality which may arise from the decomposition of feeds fed to the fish due to feeding at inappropriate time and frequency. This in turn is expected to help to minimize fish mortality due to pond water quality deterioration. The Overall production of the stock will also be enhanced (Norm, 2000). Hence, the need to study the growth performance of Clarias Gariepinus fed at a frequency of once and twice daily for an enhanced yield derived from better and faster growth for production of the catfish.

1.1 Aims And Objectives

The aim of this research is to feed Clarias Gariepinus at different frequencies of once and twice daily with the following specific objective:

To determine which of the feeding frequencies is more economical in the rearing of Clarias gariepinus.

1.2  Justification

This study is useful to fish farmers as it is expected to create awareness on the appropriate feeding frequency that can yield better growth in Clarias Gariepinus culture.

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It is also expected to enable aqua culturists to be aware of the best economical method that yields better growth in different feeding frequencies within a short production period.

Finally, the results are expected to be useful to commercial fish farmers in making managerial decisions in the production of Clarias Gariepinus.

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion

From the results of the study it was observed that there were no significant variations in the physico-chemical parameters of the water during the period of the experimentation. The ranges of the investigated physico-chemical parameters were within ranges acceptable for the optimal production of fish in the tropics. The values of the physico-chemical parameters which were 6.0 throughout the study period for pH, 24.0–26.8oc for temperature, 4.5–5.0mg/l for dissolved oxygen and a steady value of 0.01mg/l for ammonia agree with those obtained by Okonji and Ewutanure (2011), Obi and Ahunanya (2004), Bichi and Ahmed (2010).

In terms of growth parameters such as mean length increase, Growth rate, specific growth rate, mean growth rate, survival rate and mean weight gain, it was observed that highest length increments were obtained in groups fed twice daily (Treatment 2, T2) with 14.5cm for T2R1 and 14.4cm for T2R2 (mean value of 14.45cm) . Similar higher high values were obtained for growth rate, specific growth rate. It was however interesting to note that similar mean growth rate of 2.22% was obtained for all treatments of once and twice fed daily, with 100% survival rate.

Similar trend was reported by Adikwu (1992), Haruna (1997), Bichi and Ahmed (2010), Okonji and Ewutanure (2011).
The 100% survival rate reported in this study might not be unconnected to the class size of the fish used in this study as all the experimental fish were post fingerlings. Similar reports were made by Amisah et al., (2009), Olaniyi et al., (2009) and Madu & Aliko (2001).

The condition factor for each of the Treatments of the fish was presented in Table 6 showed a mean value of 0.25 in Treatment 1, T1 (0.3 in T1R1 and 0.2 in T1R2) while with a mean value of 0.15 in Treatment 2, T2 (0.1 in T2R1, and 0.2 in T2R2). This indicated same mean values for T1R2 and T2R2 of 0.2, with a higher mean in T1R1 and reduced value of 0.1 in T2R1). The implications of these results are that though there was a general high mean growth rate in T2R2 within the 90 days of treatment (twice daily feeding), any extension of days of feeding will result in the fish experiencing poor condition in well-being.

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Similar observations were made by Okonji and Ewutanure (2011), Sotolu (2010), and Ekanem et al., (2012).
Condition factor is the degree of fatness or corpulence of specimen (Ricker, 1971). In this study, the mean condition factor though higher in T1R1 and low in T2R2, with the obtained higher growth rate, length increment and specific growth rate, feeding the fish twice daily is highly recommended for fish farmers, but not exceeding 90 days which could be regarded as the maximum culture period for this fish under twice feeding level.

Summary And Conclusion

Results of studies conclusion on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fed with coppens at a frequency of once and twice daily revealed that the individuals fed twice daily yielded higher length increment than those fed once daily. Growth rate and Specific Growth Rate were also higher in groups fed twice daily. Mean growth rate stood at 2.22% for all groups with 100% survival rate.

Condition factor was found to vary between the Treatments with a mean value of 0.25 in Treatment 1, T1 (0.3 in T1R1 and 0.2 in T1R2) while with a mean value of 0.15 in Treatment 2, T2 (0.1 in T2R1, and 0.2 in T2R2).

Variations in physico-chemical parameters were generally within the ranges for optimum fish culture in the tropics with a mean of 6.0 for pH, with temperature ranging between 24-26.8oc, dissolved oxygen between 4.5-5.0mg/l and ammonia with steady value of 0.01mg/l.

From the results of the study, it is recommended that for maximum production and best yield of C. gariepinus under culture, the fish should be fed twice daily with coppens feed.

Pages:  70

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF         

Chapters: 1-5                                 

Source: Samphina

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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